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Chapter 1




Bharat Aluminum Co . Ltd . ( BALCO ) was incorporated in the year 1965 as a Public Sector Undertaking (PSU). BALCO has several firsts to its credit. It is the first public sector enterprise in the country which started producing aluminum in 1975. In 198788, a captive power plant of 270 MW was added to cater to the power requirement of the unit. BALCO has been the first in the Indian Aluminum Industry to produce the Alloy Rods, which is a Feedstock for all Aluminum Alloy Conductors, needed for todays power transmission lines. Till 2001, BALCO was a public sector enterprise owned 100% by Government of India (GoI). In the year 2001, GoI divested 51% equity and management control in favour of Sterlite Industries (I) Limited. In the last 41 years, BALCO has built up a production capacity of 200,000 tonnes per annum of alumina production capacity, 350,000 tonnes per annum of smelting capacity and expanded its fabrication facility to include three Properzi Rod Mills, three pig casting machines, integrated hot and cold rolling mills, and captive power plants of 810MW capacity.


To achieve global standards of excellence in productivity and customer satisfaction The Bharat Aluminium Co. Ltd. (BALCO) culture finds expression in its five core values: Commitment to excellence Commitment and competence of the people Customer satisfaction Globally one of the lowest cost producers Team work At BALCO, there is a constant effort to improve in all areas of operations. Plans are afoot to modernize the existing infrastructure to bring it on par with the best in the world.

Mission: DEPARTMENT*To achieve the financial execellency *To build the image of the company as an commercial & efficient run organization. OBJECTIVE*To check the income drainage through tax saving measures. *improvement in customers service. *To keep alive the goodwill & confidence created amongst suppliers, customers & other govt. agencies.

STRATEGY*To divest the equity progressively & enter the capital market *To strengthen the collection *Usage of surplus funds in building strategy alliances & for establishing export oriented units/diversification *Maximisation of profit through value added products *Integration of computerization of all sections of finance & accounts department

CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTOR*Improvement of collection of dues *complete computerization of accounts & accounts related functions of other department *Dynamic financial policy & technology improvement




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Capacity of 200,000 tpa of calcined alumina, 345,000 tpa of aluminium metal and 810MW power plants. Produced 219,485 tonnes of calcined alumina and 173,743 tonnes of hot metal in FY 2005-06 and sold 171,206 tonnes of aluminium. Fully computerized Cold Rolling mill installed, which has precise temperature controls. Hot Rolling Mill, widest 4 high hot rolling facility. Received ISO 9001:2000 for manufacture and supply of calcined alumina, aluminium ingots/billets, aluminium rods and aluminium rolled products.

ASSETS & LOCATIONB h a ra t A l m i i m C o . Ltd . ( B A LC O ) i a p a rti l y i te g ra te d u n u s al n A l m i i m co m p a n y w i C a p ti B a u xi M i e s, C a p ti Po w e r u n u th ve te n ve Pl n ts, R e fi e ri s a n d S m e l rs. a n e te

Vedanta Resources Corporate Social Responsibility UTKARSH Scholarship Scheme Inviting Talented Youth From Chhattisgarh Bharat Aluminium Co. Ltd. (BALCO) is complying with applicable Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety Assessment (OHSAS) certification rules and regulations, and seeks to provide a safe and environment friendly work atmosphere. The company has taken steps towards conservation of raw materials, water and energy and wherever possible, recycles water and reduces waste. BALCO is committed to environment protection and minimizing health hazards. BALCO has a gas cleaning and cryolite regeneration plant to minimize emission of gases since inception. It has mud ponds for disposal of red mud generated from Bauxite. Electrostatic precipitator is provided to check emission of solid particles into the atmospheres.

BALCO believes in operating with a Social Conscience. As a responsible Corporate Citizen, BALCO has undertaken some key initiatives to achieve its Effluent discharge has been brought down from 6000cum to 2500 social objectives:

2003-04 and the goal is to achieve zero-discharge by Jan 2006. On-line opacity meters are installed for on-line monitoring of SPM in all the stacks. BALCO has obtained ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001 certification its mines, refineries and smelters except for its Bodai Daldali mine will obtain shortly.

Two Brick Manufacturing plants have been promoted for fly-ash utilization. At Kartala, a predominantly tribal block of Korba district, a , which is connected to at Bilaspur and Chennai, set up. Four villages, which are in the vicinity of the manufacturing facilities, have been adopted for a number of co development programmes involving provision of drinking water, education, health, sports & games, roads etc

OPERATION OVERVIEW BALCO is a partially integrated operation with its own Captive Bauxite Mines, Refinery and Smelters, producing primary aluminum and also has 810 MW captive power plants. BALCO operations can be categorized into four major activities: Mining Smelting Refining Fabrication MINING Mining Process Bharat Aluminium Co. Ltd. (BALCO) has Captive Bauxite Mines. The method of mining is open cast semi-mechanized. Overburden, which is in the form of soil & laterite, is first excavated by a combination of shovel / excavator and dumper in order to expose ore-zone. Then the ore zone is drilled and blasted. The blasted ore is subject to sorting in order to upgrade the Run of Grade to Plant Feed Grade i.e. 46.7% oxide for Bodai Daldali and 47% for Mainpat. Sorting is carried out at the mine-face and the rejects associated in the ore zone are back-filled concurrently. The area is then leveled and afforested. The sorted ore is then trucked to the Korba complex for further processing.

Mines Mainpat is the primary operative mine. It produced 565,301 tpa of Bauxite in 2005 -06. Mainpat has approximately 5.3 million tonnes of reserves while Bodai-Daldali has approximately 6.3 million tonnes of Bauxite reserves. SMELTING Smelting Process Bharat Aluminium Co. Ltd. (BALCO) uses VSS (Vertical Stud Soderberg) technology to produce Aluminium from Alumina. Alumina is dissolved in an electrolytic bath of molten cryolite (Sodium Aluminium Fluoride) within a large carbon or graphite lined steel container known as a "pot". An electric current is passed through the electrolyte at low voltage, but very high current. The electric current flows between a carbon anode (positive), made of petroleum coke and pitch, and a cathode (negative), formed by the thick carbon or graphite lining of the pot. Molten Aluminium is deposited at the bottom of the pot and is siphoned off periodically. It is then taken to a holding furnace, cleaned and then cast. In the GAMI pre-baked process; alumina is converted into primary aluminum through a smelting process using electrolytic reduction. The reduction process takes place in a reduction cell, referred to as the pot, where alumina is reduced to molten aluminium. From the pot-line, the molten aluminium is sent to the fabrication facility.

REFININGRefining Process The aluminum industry relies on the Bayer process to produce Alumina from Bauxite. Bauxite is crushed, ground and digested in caustic soda at high pressure and temperature. The resulting liquor contains a solution of sodium aluminates and un-dissolved Bauxite residues containing iron, silicon, and titanium. These residues, known as red mud, settle gradually to the bottom of the settling tank and are filtered and removed. The clear sodium aluminates solution, which is called aluminates liquor, is pumped into a series of huge tanks called precipitators. Fine particles of alumina are added to seed the precipitation of pure Alumina particles as the liquor cools. Concentration of the solid particles increases, which are then removed, filtered and washed, and passed through a rotary or fluidized calciner at 1100C to drive off the chemically combined water. The result is a white powder, pure Alumina.

FABRICATION Introduction For the past 30 years Bharat Aluminium Company has been dedicated to developing World Class Quality aluminium plates and sheets of the various alloys. To stay ahead of the competition it has adopted state of the art technology and has firmly established itself as a front-runner among the producers of aluminium sheets and plates. Past Successes: Since 1980 BALCO has been catering to the needs of Defence and Space Research. The following sophisticated alloys have been developed and supplied for defence and space applications: 90% of the aluminium alloys used in the Agni, Prithvi and Akaash missiles, which have been test fired successfully, were supplied by BALCO. State of the art technology available with BALCOS.NO. 1 Alloy AFNOR 7020 Applications Rocket fuel storage tank for ISRO


AA 2219

Cryogenic applications for VSSC, Trivandram. Ammunition hardware for O.F., Ambajhari.


DTD 5124


DTD 5024

Weldable secondary structural Components for O.F., Ambajhari

CAST HOUSE: 1.Properzi continuous ro