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    Edited byMark Rowlands

    Published bythe Samatha Trust

  • 2 Abhidhamma Papers

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    Edited byMark Rowlands

    Published bythe Samatha Trust

  • 4 Abhidhamma Papers

    First Published 1982 Samatha Trust

    The Samatha Trust,


    The Samatha Centre,Greenstreete,Llangunllo (near Knighton),Powys,LD7 1SP,United Kingdom

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    Introduction to the book 8

    1 Introduction to abhidhamma 10 Abhidhamma 10 Abhidhamma and four kinds of realities 12 Basic principles of abhidhamma 17

    2 Mental factors and roots 23 Unskilful and skilful mental factors 23 Roots 29 Attachment 34

    3 The thought process 41 The value of studying abhidhamma 41 The sense door thought process 48

    4 Categories of mental factors 56 Rupa, sense impression, the jhana factors and the hindrances 56 Thefivefaculties64

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    5 Relationships 70 Critical points in the thought process 71 Cause and effect 77 The relation between the sense pentad and the jhananga 80 Levels and the structure of the Abhidhammattha-sangaha 89

    6 Afterward 96

    7 Appendix I: An abhidhamma story 98

    8 Appendix II: Pali terms 101

    Index 106

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  • 8 Abhidhamma Papers

    Introduction This book has been compiled in the hope that a group of peoplestudying abhidhamma in the West may be able usefully to sharesomething of the experience with others. Although the work oftranslating the abhidhamma texts into English began more thanseventy years ago, they remain comparatively little known in theWest and a group studying abhidhamma is still something of a rarity.Yet the Abhidhamma-pitaka and the Sutta-pitaka, the two divisionsof the Pali Buddhist scriptures of special importance to lay people, arecomplementary: the teachings contained in the suttas, which are farbetter known, are extended and deepened by the detailed, analyticalteachings of the abhidhamma. To those wishing to investigate theseteachings, the views and comments of others may be of interest.

    Our Abhidhamma Group was formed of people who hadpractised samatha meditation for some years, and approachedabhidhamma as a means to a deeper understanding of both meditationpractice and everyday experience. The basis of our study was theAbhidhammattha-sangaha, the book traditionally used in manyBuddhist countries. We found that although at first sight the textcould appear rather dry and abstract, containing as it does the central

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    technical terms and structures in very compact form, careful readingand re-reading revealed subtleties of meaning and clarity of analysiswhich were full of interest and amply rewarded the effort needed forthe work. The major part of this book consists of essays written by membersof the group. After studying the text of the Abhidhammatthasangahaover an extended period we held a series of meetings atwhich each member in turn presented a short essay on an aspect ofthe abhidhamma which he or she found especially interesting. It willbe seen that each persons own experience and understanding has inone way or another been used to help interpret the abhidhammamaterial. The reading of each essay was followed by groupdiscussion: notes were taken, and these have been included after theessays. The essays are reproduced here with only minor alterations fromthe form in which they were first presented. No attempt was made atoverall consistency of approach, some people choosing a fairly literaland orthodox treatment, others a more imaginative and experimentalone. Both methods seem valid in their different ways, and wehave not tried to impose uniformity. There is also, inevitably, somerepetition - which may not be a bad thing. The editors have tried toindicate some overall structure by arranging the essays in order andadding a brief introduction to each section. They have also added aglossary of Pali terms, for whilst some contributors preferred to avoidPali for technical terms and seek English equivalents, others chose touse the traditional Pali words. The translations in the glossary are notoffered as the ideal or only ones. Our group found the work that led to this collection illuminatingand enjoyable. We hope that others may find the results stimulatingand helpful in their own studies.


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    1 Introduction to Abhidhamma

    The following three essays have been grouped together at the beginningof the book because they all deal in a fairly general way with some basicideas used in abhidhamma. They provide some background to thecanonical books of abhidhamma and introduce the way in whichabhidhamma analyses experience in terms of four basic realities,namely consciousness (citta), the mental factors which arise withconsciousness (cetasika), matter (rupa) and nibbana.

    Essay: Abhidhamma

    The Pali Canon (canonical writings of Theravada Buddhism) is inthree parts: Vinaya-pitaka, or rules for monastic life; Sutta-pitaka, ordiscourses of the Buddha; and Abhidhamma-pitaka.

    Traditionally the Abhidhamma pitaka has been ascribed to theBuddha, although scholars maintain that it dates from later periods.It consists of seven books, and its basis can also be found in the suttas.Other schools, notably the Sarvastivadins, have Slightly differentversions of abhidhamma, although all versions agree on essentials.

    The Abhidhammattha-sangaha is a digest of the Abhidhamma

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    pitaka, composed probably about eight or nine centuries ago, and isthe most used textbook for abhidhamma studies. It gives a full list ofthe cittas (mental states) and cetasikas (ingredients of citta) which arefound in the thought process by which all sensation, thinking andaction occurs.

    It is meant for practical use in following the Eightfold Path, ratherthan for abstract theorizing. Its analysis of phenomena and thethought process demonstrates anicca (impermanence) and anatta(no permanent self), and so promotes right understanding. Bydescribing citta and cetasika it helps in developing right concentrationand also the four foundations of mindfulness. It thus aids theawareness conducive to sila and to right thought and right effort.


    Discussion: Abhidhamma

    According to tradition the Buddha, on the night of his enlightenment,ascended to a heaven world and recited the whole of theabhidhamma to his mother, in order to make to her the greatest act ofgenerosity, the gift of dhamma. This mythical account contrasts withthe scholarly approach to the texts, which tries to pin down theBuddhas life and his teachings to specifics. Perhaps it is necessary tobalance the two approaches: the latter has the effect of narrowingdown, while the former opens and expands possibilities.The term cetasika (paragraph three) was also discussed, and onemajor difficulty proved to be finding a suitable translation - as formany terms in abhidhamma. The word comes from the same root ascitta, cit, which means think. -ika means belonging to. Cetasikais that which supports citta. English has no adequate translation forthe word. Property of mind has too many connotations ofpossession to be accurate. In this book we have used the translationmental factor; if rather meaningless, it is at least neutral. But otherwords can also be used to give the feel of the term, such as the

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    translation ingredients used in the present essay.In the last paragraph, the point is made that knowledge of anicca

    and anatta are closely connected, and thus right understanding ispromoted. The question was raised as to how they were connected.Since there is no phenomenon or thought process which is permanent,there is nothing which can be identified as a permanent self:realisation of this therefore promotes right understanding. A similarexample of the usefulness of abhidhamma is the way in which it helpsdevelop right concentration, by the reading, for example, of itsdescription of jhana factors or the different attributes of certain statesof mind. Such knowledge makes it easier to return to a level ofconcentration which has been experienced.

    Essay: Abhidhamma and four kinds ofrealities

    The word abhidhamma may be translated as further teaching. Thetexts embodying the abhidhamma form one of the three collectionsinto which the earliest body of Buddhist scriptures is divided. Theother two collections are the collection of discourses, containing thetalks and sermons given by the Buddha; and the collection of thediscipline, comprising the rules which govern the way of life ofBuddhist monks and nuns.

    The abhidhamma is a further teaching in several senses. Itsteachings go further than the discourses in being more analytical, andare best understood once some feeling for the suttas has beenestablished. Moreover, the abhidhamma deals with truths which,although they do not contradict our everyday experience, cannot befully expressed in terms of everyday language. Accordingly, certainnew concepts and habits of thought and observation are needed,

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    to attain a degree of precision and clarity that goes beyond anythingrequired for the ordinary purposes of our habitual speaking andthinking.

    The purpose of abhidhamma is to enable us to reach a deeperunderstanding and a clearer awareness of ourselves and the world.Rightly approached, in other words, it is conducive to mindfulnessand wisdom, which are in turn the means by which we and others mayreach the end of suffering.

    For this purpose abhidhamma offers an analytical method throughwhich all our experience may be examined and understood. It followsthat the study of abhidhamma cannot be fruitful unless it is combinedwith observation of our own immediate