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    Starting in the name of Almighty Allah most merciful, most beneficent

    & most kind of all

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    Comparison of accommodation between myopes and emmetropes

    Among age group of 25 to 35 years

    A THESIS SUBMITTED TO UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES IN FULLFILMENT

    REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF

    B.Sc. (Hons) in Optometry & Orthoptics

    Submitted by Miss Zubia Sattar

    (2010-RMC-0418-UHS)

    Supervisor Dr. Ali Raza

    M.B.B.S, M.C.P.S, F.C.P.S

    Course Coordinator Dr. Rasheed Shiekh

    M.B.B.S

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    It is certified that Miss Zubia Sattar has completed her study on Comparison of

    accommodation between myopes and emmetropes among age group of 25 to 35 years for

    the partial fulfillment of the degree requirement of B.Sc. (Honors) Optometry & Orthoptics from

    Rawalpindi Medical College & Allied hospitals Rawalpindi.

    Dated: _____________ _____________________

    Signature of course supervisor

    Dr. Ali Raza

    M.B.B.S, M.C.P.S, F.C.P.S (Oph)

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    ACKNOWLEDGMENT

    Starting under the shadow of ALLAHS blessing-The most merciful the most Gracious. I am

    thankful to Almighty Allah for wisdom, courage and perseverance that HE has bestowed upon

    me during accomplishment of this research.

    I would like to express my gratitude to my honorable coordinator Dr Rasheed whose stimulating

    suggestions and encouragement helped me to complete my research. A special thanks goes to

    Miss Saima who supervise me in whole duration with their full dedication and devotion. I would

    pay thanks to Miss Kashmala who helped me to correct my mistakes in practical work. I would

    also pay thanks to my husband Abbas Aslam for helping me a lot in making my results.

    Last but not the least I express my deep feelings to my respected parents and loving friends

    Attiya, Munam, Sadia, Rabia and Tayyaba for their support and encouragement.

    Zubia Sattar

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    Declaration

    I hereby declare that all the data during this study was collected by me

    and the data collection was used only for academic purpose.

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    Dedication

    Dedicated to my beloved parents

    Zubia Sattar

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    Abstract

    Purpose: The purpose of my study was to compare the accommodation between myopes and

    emmetropes among age group of 25 to 35 years.

    Material and Method: 99 subjects between ages of 25 to 35 years in eye OPD of Benazir

    Bhutto hospital were included in which there were 54 myopes and 45 emmetropes. Near point of

    convergence and amplitude of accommodation were measured with RAF rule. Different

    variables were also considered e.g. gender, visual acuity, cover test, and heishberg reflex test.

    Objective refraction (AR) and subjective refraction were performed for myopic patients and pen

    push up exercises were advice to convergence insufficiency patients.

    Results: Comparison showed that average amplitude of accommodation is higher in myopes

    than emmetropes.

    Conclusion: Study showed that amplitude of accommodation from 1-10D is more in myopes

    than emmetropes while amplitude of accommodation from 11-20D is more in emmetropes than

    in myopes. Accommodation amplitude 20-25D and 30-35D is also higher in myopes. Hence,

    myopic patients had more accommodation than emmetropes

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    UNIT-1 INTRODUCTION

    1.1

    1.2

    1.3

    1.4

    1.5

    1.6

    1.7

    1.8

    1.9

    1.10

    Human eye

    Anatomy of human eye

    Accommodation

    Mechanism of accommodation

    Emmetropes

    Myopia

    Relationship of accomodaton with emmetropia and myopia

    Literature review

    Rational of study

    Aim and Objective

    UNIT-2 MATERIALS & METHODS

    2.1

    2.2

    2.3

    2.4

    Subject

    Study Design

    Setting

    Duration of Study

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    2.5

    2.6

    2.7

    2.8

    2.9

    2.10

    Sample Size

    Sampling Technique

    Inclusion Criteria

    Exclusion Criteria

    Methodology

    Statistical Analysis

    UNIT-3 DISCUSSION

    3.1

    3.2

    3.3

    3.4

    Results

    Discussion

    Conclusion

    Limitation

    UNIT-4 APPENDIX

    4.1 References

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    ABBREVIATION

    Serial

    no.

    Terminology

    Abbreviation

    1.

    OPD

    Outdoor patient department

    2.

    SC

    Sine correction(without glasses)

    3.

    CC

    Cum correction(with glasses)

    4.

    PH

    Pin hole

    5.

    NPC

    Near Point of Convergence

    6.

    NPA

    Near Point of Accommodation

    7.

    AA

    Amplitude of Accommodation

    8.

    CT

    Cover test

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    Chapter 01

    1-INTRODUCTION

    1.1Human Eye

    The human eye is one of the most remarkable sensory systems. Leonardo da Vinci was acutely

    aware of its prime significance: the eye, which is termed the window of the soul, is the chief

    organ whereby the senso commune can have the most complete and magnificent view of the

    infinite works of nature [1]. Human beings gather most of the information about the external

    environment through their eyes and thus rely on sight more than on any other sense, with the eye

    being the most sensitive organ we have. Besides its consideration as a window to the soul, the

    eye can indeed serve as a window to the identity of an individual. It offers unique features for the

    application of identification technology.

    1.2 Anatomy of Human Eye

    The adult eyeball, often referred to as a spherical globe, is only approximately spherical in shape,

    with its largest diameter being 24 mm antero-posteriorly [2-3]. The anterior portion of the eye

    consists of the cornea, iris, pupil, and crystalline lens. The pupil serves as an aperture which is

    adjusted by the surrounding iris, acting as a diaphragm that regulates the amount of light entering

    the eye. Both the iris and the pupil are covered by the convex transparent cornea, the major

    refractive component of the eye due to the huge difference in refractive index across the air-

    cornea interface [4]. Together with the crystalline lens, the cornea is responsible for the

    formation of the optical image on the retina. The crystalline lens is held in place by suspensory

    ligaments, or zonules, that are attached to the ciliary muscle. Ciliary muscle actions cause the

    zonular fibers to relax or tighten and thus provide accommodation, the active function of the

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    crystalline lens. This ability to change its curvature, allowing objects at vario