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    GENERAL AVITON DOUBLE ENGINE

    PASSENGER AIRCRAFT

    Aircraft design lab  i

      Submitted by

    ABBAS!S

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    AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING

    0ARPAGA1 INSTITUTE OF TEC2NOLOG34COI1BATORE!

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    CONTENTS

    List of symbols 3

    Introduction 4

    Literature survey 10

    Weight estimation 24

    Engine selection 32

    Airfoil selection 33

    Wing design 35

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    Wetted area calculation 40

    rag estimation 4!

    Lift estimation 54

    "a#eoff and landing distance calculation $4

    "hree vie%s of aircraft &0

    'eference !0

    LISTOF SYMBOLS

    ' ('ange

    ) ()elocity

    * (s+ecific fuel consum+tion

    E (Loitering time

    L, (lift to drag ratio

    V alt  ()elocity at altitude

     ρalt  (ensity at altitude

    - ( %ing surface area

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     b ( %ing s+an

    µ❑alt  (coefficient of viscosity at altitude

    C  HT  (.ori/ontal tail volume coefficient

     L HT  ( .ori/ontal tail arm moment

    S HT  ( .ori/ontal tail area

    SW  (Wing area

    C W   (Wing mean chord

     LVT  ()ertical tail arm moment

    SVT   )ertical tail area

    C VT  ()ertical tail volume coefficient

    bW   (Wing s+an

    SW  (Wing area

    )"  ( )ertical ta#e(off distance -"  ( "a#e(off distance

    " ( "a#e(off thrust

    )A ( A++roach )elocity

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      An air+lane design is both an art and a science8 Air+lane design is an intellectual

    engineering +rocess of creating on +a+er a flying machine to

     9eet s+ecifications established by users  6ioneer innovative: ne% ideas and technology8

    "he design +rocess is an intellectual activity develo+ed via e;+erience: by attention +aid to

    successful air+lane designs that have been used in the +ast and by design +rocedures and

    databases that are a +art of every air+lane manufacturer8

    6.A-E-  AI'6LAE E-I7(

     rom the time %hen an air+lane materiali/es as a ne% thought to the time the finished +roduct is

    ready: the com+lete design undergoes three distinct +hases in +erfect se

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     "he end of the +hase is the decision if the air+lane is to be manufactured or not8 It is no longer a

    critical condition %here Byou  bet your com+anyC on full scale develo+ment of a ne% air+lane8

    E"AIL E-I7(

    "his +hase is literally the Dnuts and bolts +hase of air+lane design8 "he aerodynamic: +ro+ulsion:structures: +erformance: flight control analysis are over in the +reliminary +hase8 "he air+lane is

    to be fabricated and machined8 "he si/e: number and location of rivets: fasteners are determined

    no%8 light simulators are develo+ed8 At the end of this +hase: the aircraft is ready to be

    fabricated8

    ".E -E)E I"ELLE*"=AL 6I)" 6I"- ' **E6"=AL E-I7(

    "he overall conce+tual design is anchored b seven intellectual B+ivot +ointsC  seven factors that

    anchor the conce+tual design thought +rocess8 "hey allo% different: detailed thin#ing to reach

    out in all directions from each +oint8

    'EF=I'E9E"-7(

    "he re

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     9a;imum lift coefficient  Lift to drag ratio @L,  "hrust to %eight ratio @",W

    "herefore the ne;t ste+ is to ma#e first estimates of W,- and ",W to achieve the +erformance as

    sti+ulated by reudged if it can meet all original s+ecifications8 An

    interactive +rocess is initiated %here the configuration is modified8 "he critical +erformance

     +arameters are ad>usted for im+roving +erformance8 In this stage: some mature decisions should

     be made as the s+ecifications or cost or unavailable technology8

    .ence some s+ecifications might be rela;ed so that others might get higher +riority8

    6"I9IGA"I7(

    When iterative +rocess is over: it has +roduced a viable air+lane8 "his leads to o+timi/ation8 "he

    o+timi/ation analysis is carried out may be carried out by a systematic variation of different

     +arameters ",W: W,- and +lotting the +erformance o gra+hs %hich can be found using a si/ing

    matri; or a car+et +lot from %hich o+timum design can be found8

    WEI."  AI'6LA*E  I'-" E-"I9A"E7(

     o air+lane can ta#e off the ground unless it +roduces a lift greater than its %eight8 "here

    should be a first estimate of gross ta#eoff %eight8 "he %eight estimate is the ne;t +ivot +oint after the re

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    *-"'AI" IA'A97(

    A constraint diagram is constructed %hich identifies allo%able solution s+ace for air+lane design8

    A constraint diagram consists of +lots o the sea  level thrust to ta#e off %eight ratio versus %ing

    loading atta#eoff %eight ratio",W versus%ing loading at ta#eoff W ,- determined by

    intellectual +ivot +oint8

     T!E &ESIN W!EEL

    SI'IN AN&

     TRA&E

    STU&IES

    RE*UIRE%ENT &ESIN

    ANALYSIS

    &ESIN

    "ON"EPT

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    LITERATURE SUR$EY

    LITERATURE SUR$EY

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     It is very easy to design an aircraft if %e have datas about already e;isting aircrafts of similar 

    ty+e8 It +rovides more satisfaction and avoids confusion %hile choosing some design +arameters

    for our aircraft8 In this detailed survey some many im+ortant design drivers li#e as+ect ratio:

    %ing loading: overall dimensions and engine s+ecifications are determined for our reference8 It

    assists in +ro+osing a ne% design and modification in our design %hich %ill im+rove the

     +erformance of the +ro+osed aircraft8 "his assures the +erformance of the aircraft as +er the

    design calculations and easy %ay of designing an aircraft %ithin +articular +eriod of time8 -o in

    this literature survey %e have collected some ten already e;isting 20 seated >et trans+ort aircraft

    for our reference of design +arameters8 9ostly these aircrafts have similar characteristics in

    many designs as+ects %hich are sho%n in the table8

    GEOMETRIC SPECIFICATION

    S%NO AIRCRAFTNAM

    E

    ASPECTRATIO &INGSPAN'm( &INGAREA'm)*

    (

     IAI A+,, !%!6 *!%.6 4/%60

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    * CASA C **

    A+i12,

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    !%!" .%0 /.

    " PL M*0 *%*" **%!6 /.%7*

    6 At11+, A-/0 %40 **%!6 4*%4

    7 At11+, A-*0 *%. ** /.%7

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    / H,bi y-* .%"* 7%*4 /4%67

    4 S81t 52%7 5:y+, %" .%7. /"%*

    " S81t-//! *%/ **%76 4*%

    6 C-*/A *%/ **%70 4*%

    7 C-*/B;C *%*6 **%0 4*%4

    0

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     IAI A+,, *%6. "%*

    * CASA C ** A+i12, 6%*! 6%/

    /

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    6 At11+, A-/0 "%67 4%6

    7 At11+, A-*0 *%.0 7%*4

    0 #1ie /*0 *% 4%06

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    / H,bi y-* 0%06 4%6

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    " S81t-//! 7%6. 4%."

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    7%7 "%74

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    S%NO

    AIRCRAFTNAME EMPTY

    &EIGHT':=(

    MA>% TAKE OFF

    &EIGHT':=(

     IAI A+,, /... 60!4

    * CASA C ** A+i12, /70! 77!!

    /

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