A Survey of Western Civilization Why should Chinese students of English bother about Western...

Click here to load reader

  • date post

    11-Jan-2016
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    216
  • download

    2

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of A Survey of Western Civilization Why should Chinese students of English bother about Western...

  • A Survey of Western Civilization

  • Why should Chinese students of English bother about Western civilization?

    What do you think are the basic elements in Western Civilization?

  • An introduction to Western Civilization1. Requirements to the course2. Learning methods3. Relevant theories 4. The main contents in a chronological order5. Reference books

  • Teaching/learning methods1. Presentation2. Drama play3. Movie watching

  • Relevant theories1. Definition of civilization2. The relationship between culture and civilization3. The significance to learn Western civilization

  • The word civilization comes from Latin civis, meaning a citizen or resident of city.

    An advanced state of human society, in which a high level of culture, science, and government has been reached.Websters Universal College Dictionary

  • Civilization versus CultureThe term civilization is similar to and often interchangeable with culture, but the former refers mostly to cultures that have complex and advanced economic, governmental, and social systems. Culture is any way of life, be it simple or complex, advanced or not advanced. Western civilizationEuropean civilization

  • The main contents1.Greek culture2.Roman culture3.Greek and Roman Mythology4. Christianity and Bible 5.The Middle Ages6.Renaissance and Reformation7.The Age of Enlightenment8.Romanticism, Realism and Modernism

  • References[] Robert E. Lerner, et, Western Civilizations, 11th edition, Volume I, W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. , NEW YORK, 1984; [] Robert E. Lerner, et, Western Civilizations, 11th edition, Vol. II, W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. , NEW YORK, 1984; [] Dennis Sherman, World Civilizations, 4th edition, 20077 [] William H. McNeill, A World History, 4th edition, 20089 [] Duncan Sidwell, A Survey of European Culture, 20086 [] Duncan Sidwell, A Survey of European Culture, 20086

  • Greece: the origin of western civilization

  • Warm-upsWhen we mention the Greek culture, what will jump to your mind immediately? Watch part of the opening ceremony of Athens Olympic Games and try to find the elements of Greek civilization.

  • Greek CultureHistorySocial and political structurePoetryPhilosophyArchitectureSculptureImpact

  • 1.The Historical Context1200 B.C. a war of Troy5th century B.C. Greek culture reached a high point of developmentsuccessful repulse of Persian's invasion.In the second half of the 4th century B.C. all Greece was brought under the rule of Alexander, king of Macedom. Greek culture was spread wherever they went. In 146 B.C. the Romans conquered Greece.

  • Trojan WarTwo sides: The Greek allies and the TroyCause of the war: Helen?Main characters in the warInfluence of the war

  • Who caused the war?Thetis weddingErisgoddess of discordThe apple of discordParis to decideRevenge of AthenaAbduction of Helen

  • Thetis wedding

  • Trojan WarTwo sides: The Greek allies and the TroyCause of the war: Helen?Main characters in the warInfluence of the war

  • Greece: MenelausKing of Sparta, Helens husband

  • Greece: AgamemnonThe king of Mycenae, brother of Menelaus, and leader of the Greeks in the Trojan War.He killed his daughter as a sacrifice to sea god and later was killed by his wife.

  • Greece: Achilles The greatest hero in the war of Troy. He killed Hector, brother of Paris, and later was killed by Paris.

  • Achilles heeldipping into the river Styx

  • Greece: OdysseusHe advised to build a Trojan Horse and caused the destruction of Troy.

  • Penelopes WebSailing home from Troy

  • Troy: PriamKing of Troy;Father of Paris and Hector;The last king of Troy and was killed in the Trojan War.

  • Troy: HectorPrince of Troy and the greatest hero in Troy.He was the biggest rival of Achilles and was killed by Achilles.

  • Troy: ParisPrince of TroyHe abducted Helen.He killed Achilles.

  • Aeneas

  • Think about it:Was this the face that launched a thousand ships, and burnt the topless towers of Ilium?Christopher Marlowe

  • Is woman the real reason for raging a war? Dont you think it is unfair that historians always attribute the fall of kingdoms to Helen?

    Can you list other similar women figures in Chinas history?

  • 1.The Historical Context1200 B.C. a war of Troy5th century B.C. Greek culture reached a high point of developmentsuccessful repulse of Persian's invasion.In the second half of the 4th century B.C. all Greece was brought under the rule of Alexander, king of Macedom. Greek culture was spread wherever they went. In 146 B.C. the Romans conquered Greece.

  • Greek and Persian WarCity-states of Greecemore than 200 poleisKing Darius of PersiaIn 499 B.C. some poleis rebelled from the Persians.With the help of Athens and the Greek allies, the Persians were defeated and drove out of the Asia Minor.After the war, Athens emerged as the most dominant political and economical force in the Greek world.Conflicts between Athens and Sparta

  • Rise of MacedonPhilip II took advantage of the political disorder in Greece and brought all Greece under his control.Philip II was murdered by one of his officer, also his lover, Pausanias.Wife of Philip IIOlympias, promised Pausanias high glory and rewards if he killed Philip II.

  • Alexander the GreatSon of Zeus. His idolAchilles He was greatly influenced by his mother.He was tutored by Aristotle.Taming of a horse He gained the throne when he was 20.In 334 B.C., he and his troops marched into Asia and launched a war against Persia.Result: Drove the king out of Asia Minor and Egypt. Darius III was murdered.His died when he was only 33.

  • Greek CultureHistorySocial and political structurePoetryPhilosophyArchitectureSculptureImpact

  • 2.Social and Political StructurePolitics Athens was a democracy.Democracy means exercise of power by the whole people.Economyslave laborSports Greeks loved sports.Mount Olympus ---- Olympic Games The modern Olympic Games revived in 1896.

  • 3.Poetry--HomerGreek poetblind bardHe probably lived around 750 B.C. or 850 B.C.Two epics: Iliad Odyssey

  • 4. Philosophy and ScienceSocratesPlatoAristotle

    What made the universe?Love of wisdom

  • Socrates (470-399 B.C.)Dialogue & The Apologies of Socratesrecorded by PlatoGreek philosopher who initiated a question-and-answer method of teaching as a means of achieving self-knowledge.Socrates was tried for corrupting the minds of Athenian youth and subsequently put to death in 399 B.C.

  • The Apologies of SocratesLet us reflect and we shall see that there is great reason to hope that death is a good; for one of two things--either death is a state of nothingness and utter unconsciousness, or, as men say, there is a change and migration of the soul from this world to another. Now if you suppose that there is no consciousness, but a sleep like the sleep of him who is undisturbed even by dreams, death will be an unspeakable gain

  • to die is a gain; for eternity is then only a single night. But if death is the journey to another place, and there, as men say, all the dead abide, what good, my friends and judges , can be greater than this? I am not angry with my condemners, or with my accusers; they have done me no harm, although they did not mean to do me any good; and for this I may gently blame them. The hour of departure has arrived, and we go our ways - I to die, and you to live. Which is better only God knows.

  • Know yourself.Life is compared to a voyage.One should eat to live, not live to eat.All I know is that I know nothing. All things in their being are good for something. Education is the kindling of a flame, not the filling of a vessel.

  • Socrates VS Confucius

  • PlatoA follower of Socrates. Plato founded his own school, the Academy. The Republic(the lengthy dialogue, dealing with questions including the nature of justice, ethics and politics.Physical worldnot reliableIdeal worldhigher worldIdealist

  • The RepublicHow to live a good life; What is justice?Inquiry of moralityWhat's the point of being good?" when the wicked are apparently so much happier and more successful.

  • Aristotle Plato is dear to me, but dearer still is truth.

  • Plato &Aristotle

  • 5. Architecture1) Doric stylemasculine sturdy (strong and firm) powerful, severe looking, showing a good sense of proportions and numbers.Parthenon temple

  • 2) the Ionic Stylefeminine stylegraceful elegant

  • 3) Corinthian Style: Ornamental luxury

  • 6. Sculpture

    (1). Discus Thrower

  • (2). Venus de Milo

  • Impact(1). Supreme Achievement (2). Lasting effect

  • (Engels)(Shelley)(Hegel)There is nowhere but Greece.Captive Greece took her rude conqueror (Rome) captive.