A Short History of Bookbinding

download A Short History of Bookbinding

of 50

  • date post

    03-Apr-2018
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    226
  • download

    3

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of A Short History of Bookbinding

  • 7/29/2019 A Short History of Bookbinding

    1/50

    UC-NRLF

    B M n? flT3

  • 7/29/2019 A Short History of Bookbinding

    2/50

  • 7/29/2019 A Short History of Bookbinding

    3/50

    BOOKBINDING

    LONDON: J. ZAEHNSDORFMBRIDGE WORKS, 144-146, SHAFTESBURY AVENUE, W.C.

  • 7/29/2019 A Short History of Bookbinding

    4/50

  • 7/29/2019 A Short History of Bookbinding

    5/50

    A Short History ot Bookbinding.

  • 7/29/2019 A Short History of Bookbinding

    6/50

  • 7/29/2019 A Short History of Bookbinding

    7/50

  • 7/29/2019 A Short History of Bookbinding

    8/50

    ATALA, PARIS, 1863, BLUE MOROCCO SUPER EXTRA, INLAID WITHENTWINED RED RIBBONS IN THE EARLY ITALIAN STYLE; RED

    MOROCCO DOUBLE TOOLED WITH DENTELLE BORDER.

  • 7/29/2019 A Short History of Bookbinding

    9/50

    A ShortHistory of Bookbinding

    AND AGLOSSARY OF STYLES AND TERMS

    USED IN BINDINGWITH A BRIEF ACCOUNT OF

    THE CELEBRATED BINDERS AND PATRONSOF BOOKBINDING FROM WHOM THE

    VARIOUS STYLES ARE NAMED,DESCRIPTION OF

    LEATHERS,Etc.

    LONDONPRINTED AT THE CHISWICK PRESS

    MDCCCXCV

  • 7/29/2019 A Short History of Bookbinding

    10/50

    8CH0QW.

    Qitl

  • 7/29/2019 A Short History of Bookbinding

    11/50

    A SHORT HISTORY OFBOOKBINDING.

    ; GOK BINDING carries us back to thetime when leaden tablets with inscribedhieroglyphics were fastened together withrings, which formed what to us would

    be the binding of the volumes. We might go even stillfurther back, when tiles of baked clay with cuneiformcharacters were incased one within the other, so thatif the cover of one were broken or otherwise damagedthere still remained another, and yet another covering ;by which care history has been handed down fromgeneration to generation. The binding in the formerwould consist of the rings which bound the leadentablets together, and in the latter, the simple coveringformed the binding which preserved the contents.We pass on from these, and make another pause,when vellum strips were attached together in one con-tinuous length with a roller at each end. The reader156

  • 7/29/2019 A Short History of Bookbinding

    12/50

    6 A Short Historyunrolled the one, and rolled the other as he perused thework. Books, prized either for their rarity, sacredcharacter, or costliness, would be kept in a round boxor case, so that the appearance of a library in AncientJerusalem would seem as if it were a collection ofcanisters. The next step was the fastening of separateleaves together, thus making a back, and covering thewhole as a protection in a most simple form ; the onlyobject being to keep the several leaves in connectedsequence. I believe the most ancient form of booksformed of separate leaves, will be found in the sacredbooks of Ceylon, which were formed of palm leaveswritten on with a metal style, and the binding wasa silken string tied through one end so loosely as toadmit of each leaf being laid down flat when turnedover. When the mode of preserving MS. on animalmembrane or vellum in separate leaves came into use,the binding was at first a simple piece of leatherwrapped round the book and tied with a thong.These books were not kept on their edges, but werelaid flat on shelves, and had small cedar tablets hang-ing from them upon which their titles were inscribed.

    The ordinary books for general use were fastenedstrongly at the back, with wooden boards for the sides,and simply a piece of leather up the back.

    In the sixth century, bookbinding had already takenits place as an " Art, ' for we have the " Byzantine

  • 7/29/2019 A Short History of Bookbinding

    13/50

    OF Bookbinding. 7coatings," as they are called. They are of metal, gold,siKer or copper gilt, and sometimes they are enrichedwith precious stones. The monks, during this century,took adxantage of the immense thickness of the woodenboards and frequently hollowed them out to secretetheir relics in the cavities. Bookbinding was then con-fined entirely to the monks, who were the literati ofthe period. Then the art was neglected for somecenturies, owing to the plunder and pillage that over-ran Europe, and books were destroyed to get at thejewels that were supposed to be hidden in the differentparts of the covering, so that iow now remain to showhow bookbinding was then accomplished, and to whatextent.We pass on to the middle ages, when samples ofbinding were brought from the East by the crusaders,and these may well be prized by their owners for theirdelicacy of finish. The monks, who still held the artof bookbinding in their hands, improved upon theseEastern specimens. Each one devoted himself to adifferent branchone planed the oaken boards to aproper size, another stretched and co\'ered with theleather ; the work was thus divided into branches, asit is now. The task was one of great difficulty, seeinghow rude were the implements then in use.

    In many of our Cathedral towns, notabl}- Durhamand Winchester, there are to be found examples of

  • 7/29/2019 A Short History of Bookbinding

    14/50

    8 A Short Historybinding executed in England in the twelfth centun-,and these examples show great beauty of design andexecution.The art of printing gave new life to our trade, and,

    during the fifteenth century, bookbinding made greatprogress on account of the greater facility and cheap-ness with which books were produced. The printerwas then his own binder ; but as books increased innumber, bookbinding became a separate trade of itself.The art improved so much, that in the sixteenth centurysome of the finest samples of bookbinding w^ere exe-cuted. Morocco having been introduced, and finedelicate tools cut, the art was encouraged by greatfamilies, who, liking the Venetian patterns, had theirbooks bound in that style. The annexed woodcutwill give a fair idea of a Venetian tool. During thisperiod the French had bookbinding almost entirelyin their hands, and Grolier,^ who loved the art, hadhis books bound under his own supervision in themost costly manner. His designs consisted of boldgold lines arranged geometrically with great accuracy,crossing one another and intermixed with small leavesor sprays. These were in outlines shaded or filledup with closely \\orked cross lines. Not, however,

    ^ In nearly all Groliei-'s books the motto " lo. Grolierii et amico-rum," or " Mei Grolierii Lugdunens et amicoruin," is j^enerallyfound lettered on the covers.

  • 7/29/2019 A Short History of Bookbinding

    15/50

    OF Bookbind'inCx. 9satisfied with these simple traceries, he enibelhshedthem still more by staining or painting them black,green, red, and even with silver, so that they formedbands interlacing each other in a most graceful manner.I give in illustration a centre block of Grolier. It willbe seen how these lines entwine, and how the smalltools are shaded with lines. If the reader has had

    Vknetian.

    the good fortune to see one of these specimens, hashe not wondered at the taste displayed ? To theFrench must certainly be given the honour of bring-ing the art to such perfection. Francis I. and thesucceeding monarchs, with the French nobility, placedthe art on such a high eminence, that even now weare compelled to look to these great masterpieces asmodels of style. Not onl)' was the exterior elaborate

    B

  • 7/29/2019 A Short History of Bookbinding

    16/50

    lO A Short Historyin ornamentj but the edges were gilded and tooled,and even painted.

    There is little doubt that the first examples of thestyle now known as "Grolier" were produced in Venice,under the eye of Grolier himself, in accordance withhis own designs ; but the workmen in France soonrivalled and excelled the early attempts. 1 he work

    Grolier.

    of Maioli may be distinctly traced by the bold sim-plicity and purity of his designs ; and more especiallyby the broader gold lines which margin the colouredbands of geometric and arabesque ornamentation.

    All books, it must be understood, were not boundin so costly a manner, for we find pigskin, vellum andcalf in use. The latter was especially preferred onaccount of its peculiar softness, smooth surface, and

  • 7/29/2019 A Short History of Bookbinding

    17/50

    OF Bookbinding. itgreat aptitude for receivint^- impressions of dumb orblind tooling. It was only towards the latter part ofthe sixteenth century that the English binders beganto employ delicate or fine tooling.

    The most famous binders of the sixteenth centurywere the Eves (Nicholas and Ciovis). Their namesare associated with the libraries of Marguerite de Valoisand Catherine de Medicis. The style of the Eve\vork is geometrical shaped compartments linkedtogether with interlaced circles, the centres beingfilled with small floral ornaments.

    During the seventeenth century the names of DuSueil and Le Gascon were known for the delicacyand extreme minuteness of their finishing. Not dis-daining the bindings of the Italian school, they tookfrom them new ideas ; for whilst the Grolier bindingswere bold, the Du Sueil and Le Gascon more re-sembled fine lace work of intricate design, with har-monizing flowers and other objects, from which weobtain a great variety of artistic character. Duringthis period embroidered velvet was much in use.Then a change took place, and a style was adoptedwhich by some would be preferred to the gorgeousbindings of the sixteenth century. The sides werefinished quite plainly with only a line round the edgeof the boards (and in some instances not even that)with a coat of arms or some badge in the centre.

  • 7/29/2019 A Short History of Bookbinding

    18/50

    12 A Short HistoryTowards the end of the seventeenth century b