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A Rare Case of Peritoneal Spread of Benign Struma Ovarii withThyrotoxicosisAbhijeet Ingle*, Vijaya Gattu, Suhela Rachakonda, Sachin Subhash MardaYashoda Hospital, Hyderabad, TS, India

Received date: May 30, 2017; Accepted date: March 16, 2018; Published date: March 20, 2018.

Abstract

Background: Struma ovarii is a highly specialized form of mature ovarian teratoma consisting of thyroid tissue and exhibitingall the histological features of the thyroid gland. Malignant transformation of thyroid tissue in struma ovarii and metastasisare extremely uncommon. In rare cases, benign thyroid tissue may spread to the peritoneal cavity, and pathologicexamination of the peritoneal implants shows multiple nodules of varying sizes of mature thyroid tissue similar to strumaovarii.

Summary: We report a 30-year-old woman with struma ovarii complicated by peritoneal dissemination with thyrotoxicosis.After surgical resection of the struma ovarii and peritoneal implants the patient became euthyroid.

Keywords: Struma ovarii, Highly differentiated follicular carcinoma of ovarian origin, Peritoneal dissemination, Radioiodineablation, Extra-ovarian tumour.

IntroductionTwenty percent of ovarian tumours are teratomas, and

up to 20% of teratomas contain thyroid tissue. Strumaovarii consisting of at least 50% of thyroid tissue [1] is lesscommon and accounts for 1-4% of benign ovarianteratomas. Bilateral struma ovarii is very rare and has notbeen reported frequently [2]. Struma ovarii usually showsup as a pelvic mass and presents as pseudo-Meigs'syndrome in about 5% of cases [3]. However, preoperativediagnosis of struma ovarii is rarely reported and mayoccur in patients with symptoms of hyperthyroidism butthis association is observed in less than 5% of cases [4].

Malignant transformation of thyroid tissue in strumaovarii and metastasis is uncommon. Benign thyroid tissuemay spread to the peritoneal cavity in rare cases, andpathologic examination of the peritoneal implants showsmultiple nodules of varying sizes of mature thyroid tissuesimilar to struma ovarii [5]. Because of its harmlesshistological appearance, this form of follicular carcinomacannot be diagnosed until the neoplasm spreads beyondthe ovary thus showing evidence of aggressive behaviour[6]. The differential diagnosis of peritoneal disseminationof struma includes typical thyroid carcinoma metastaticto the ovary, which has also been reported [7].

Histological features of thyroid carcinoma are found in ~5% struma ovarii (referred to as malignant struma ovarii)[2] The nuclear features of papillary carcinoma are usuallyused as the criteria for diagnosis of malignant strumaovarii, and most cases reported are papillary carcinoma[8,9]. In recent large studies on malignant struma ovarii,the clinical behaviour was difficult to predict based ontumor histomorphology alone [10]. Immunohistochemicalstaining with HBME-1 (Hector Battifora mesothelial[cell]-1) and galectin-3, often expressed in papillarythyroid carcinoma, can also help to confirm the diagnosis[11].

Case ReportHere we report a 30-year-old female patient G0 P2

L2A0 who was evaluated at an outside institution for leftovarian mass. Then she underwent laparoscopic leftoophorectomy, and diagnosed as proliferative strumaovarii with nuclear atypia, 2 years back. The histologicalreport was available and reviewed. Then she developedlower abdominal pain (right side) since 4-5 months,associated with weight loss.

Chest X-ray was normal and ultrasound abdomenshowed multiple space occupying lesions (SOLs) in pelvis

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Case Report

Corresponding Author:Abhijeet I, Department of Consultant Histopathologist,Yashoda Hospital, Hyderabad, India, E-mail:[email protected]

DOI:10.4103/2278-960X.194513

2017 Journal of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons

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For reprints contact: [email protected]

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20

and lower abdomen bilaterally-suggestive of metastaticnodes and ascites. Thyroid profile showed raised T3, T4and low TSH

PET CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis demonstratedmultiple peritoneal deposits scattered in entireabdominal cavity with a max standardized uptake valueof6.7 (Figures 1 and 2).

Figure 1: PET CT scan of the abdomen demonstrated multipleperitoneal deposits scattered in entire abdominal cavity with a maxstandardized uptake value of 6.7.

Ultrasound guided biopsy from one of the peritoneallesions and ascitic fluid cytology revealed atypicalcells.Then she underwent radical hysterectomy with rightsalpingo-oophorectomy, Total omentoctomy, Distal smallbowel tumour resection and end to end Anastomosis,resection of anterior wall deposit, Extensive totalperitonectomy, excision of mesenteric and small boweldeposit and total thyroidectomy. The specimens weresubmitted for histopathological examination.

Multiple grey white to brownish nodules were seenscattered all over the surface of uterus, right ovary andfallopian tube, largest nodule measuring 1.5 1 1.5cms. (Figure 3). Omentum showed multiple grey white tobrownish nodules, largest nodule measuring 3.0 2.5 2.5 cms. (Figure 4). Similar deposits were observed onsmall bowel, anterior abdominal wall, Pouch of Douglas(POD), paracolic gutter, and diaphragmatic peritoneum(Figures 5 and 6). Grossly thyroidectomy specimen wasunremarkable.

Figure 2: PET CT scan of the pelvis demonstrated multiple peritonealdeposits scattered in entire abdominal cavity with a max standardizeduptake value of 6.7.

Histopathological examination from the slidesreviewed from left ovarian mass showed cyst wall linedby skin and skin adnexal structures, keratinous materialand calcific debris. Also showed closely packed thyroidfollicles containing thin colloid, the lining cells show mildnucleomegaly, focal nuclear overlapping, and nuclearclearing at most places. Occasional intranuclear groovesare seen; hence, diagnosed as proliferative struma ovariiwith nuclear atypia (Figure 7).

Histopathological examination from the slidesreviewed from left ovarian mass showed cyst wall linedby skin and skin adnexal structures, keratinous materialand calcific debris.

Figure 3: Multiple grey white to brownish nodules were seenscattered all over the surface of uterus, right ovary and fallopian tube,largest nodule measuring 1.5 1 1.5 cm.

Citation: Abhijeet I, Vijaya G, Suhela R, Sachin Subhash M. A Rare Case of Peritoneal Spread of Benign Struma Ovarii with Thyrotoxicosis doi:10.4103/2278-960X.194513

21Journal of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences January-June 2018 Vol 7 Issue 1

Histopathological examination from representativeareas from above mentioned organs revealedencapsulated nodular tumours composed of closelypacked micro follicles, lined by cuboidal cells havinground to slightly irregular nuclei, mild anisonucleosisseen. Focally chromatin clearing and occasionalintranuclear grooves seen.

The unequivocal features of papillary carcinoma werenot seen. Diagnosis of peritoneal spread of benignstruma ovarii was made (Metastatic highly differentiatedthyroid carcinoma) (Figures 8 and 9). However sectionsfrom urinary bladder and thyroidectomy specimen wereunremarkable.

Immunohistochemistry performed on multiple nodules-CK19 was focally positive and p53 was negative.

DiscussionRoth et al. described in detail the cases of peritoneal

implantation or dissemination of thyroid tissues.

They also proposed considering highly differentiatedfollicular carcinoma of ovarian origin as a new entity,which resembles thyroid goiter but causes metastasis.

In this context, some cases in which peritonealdissemination was found at the time of surgery forovarian tumor seems to be malignant struma ovarii, andthe term peritoneal strumosis should be used only incases in which the primary ovarian tumor is purelybenign [6].

Figure 4: Omentum showed multiple grey white to brownish nodules,largest nodule measuring 3.0 2.5 2.5 cms.

Figure 5: Deposits were observed on small bowel, anterior abdominalwall.

Our patient presented with recurrence and peritonealspread of a benign struma ovarii 2 years after the firstdiagnosis.

A review of 39 patients with malignant struma ovariishowed only 9 patients (23%) with metastasis.

The predominant sites were adjacent pelvic structuresincluding the contralateral ovary, but some patients haddistant metastases to the lungs, bone, liver, and brain [12].

McGill et al. performed a review on 40 patients withstruma ovarii and concluded also that the recommendedtreatment of metastatic struma ovarii should containtotal thyroidectomy in conjunction with radioiodinescanning and radioiodine ablation [13]; another two casereports came to similar conclusions [14,15].

Figure 6: Deposits were observed on pouch of douglas (POD),paracolic gutter, and diaphragmatic peritoneum.

Citation: Abhijeet I, Vijaya G, Suhela R, Sachin Subhash M. A Rare Case of Peritoneal Spread of Benign Struma Ovarii with Thyrotoxicosis doi:10.4103/2278-960X.194513

Journal of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences January-June 2018 Vol 7 Issue 122

Figure 7: Int