a glimpse at Egypt History

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A Glimpse at the History of Egypt Under the Supervision & Auspices of Professor Yoon, Jwan Sik Prepared & Presented by SAAD Mohamed Gouda [email protected]

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Transcript of a glimpse at Egypt History

  • 1. A Glimpse atthe History ofEgyptPrepared & Presented bySAAD Mohamed [email protected] the Supervision & Auspices ofProfessor Yoon, Jwan Sik

2. Egypt 3. Egypt is located in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsulaforming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinentalcountry, and a major powerin Africa, the Mediterranean Basin,the Middle East and the MuslimWorld. Covering an area of about 1,010,000square KM, Egypt is bordered bytheMediterranean Sea to thenorth, Palestine and Israel to thenortheast, the Red Sea to the east,Sudan to the south and Libya to thewest. 4. Egypt , wrote Herodotus the Greek historian 25 centuriesago, is the Gift of the Nile, 5. Pre-Historic Egypt: Evidences of rock carving can be found al ong t he N l e i t er r aces and i n deser t oases. I n t he 10t h Millennium BC, a culture of hunter gatherers and fishers replaced a grain-grinding cul t ur e. C i m e changes and/or over gr azi ng ar ound 8000 B l atC began t o desi ccat e t he past or al l ands of Egypt , f or m ng i t he Sahar a. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed a settled agricultural econom and m e cent r al i zedy or soci et y. 6. By about 6000 BC a Neolithic culture r oot ed i n t he N l eiVal l ey. During the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Low Egypt . er C em aneous Low ont por er Egypt i an com uni t i es coexi st edm w t h t hei r sout her n count er par t s f or m e t han t w ioro t housand year s, r em ni ng cul t ur al l y di st i nct , butai m nt ai ni ng f r equent cont act t hr ough t r ade. aiTheearliest knownevidenceofEgyptianhieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynasticperiod on Nagada I I I pot t er y vessel s, dat ed t o about3200 B .C 7. Can you write your name in HIEROGLYPHICS? 8. A unified kingdom was founded 3150 BC by King Menes,leading to a series of dynasties that ruled Egypt for thenext three millennia. Egyptian culture flourished during this long period andremained distinctively Egyptian in its religion, art,language and customs. The first two ruling dynasties of aunified Egypt set the stage for the OldKingdom period, 27002200 BC,which constructed many pyramids,most notably the third DynastyPyramid of Dioser and the fourthdynasty Giza Pyramids.Tut Ankh Amoun 9. The Ptolemaic Kingdom was a powerful Hellenistic state,extending from southern Syria in the east, to Cyrene to thewest, and south to the frontier with Nubia. Alexandria became the capital cityand a center of Greek culture andtrade. To gain recognition by the nativeEgyptianpopulace, they namedthemselves as the successors to thePharaohs. The later Ptolemies took on Egyptiantraditions, had themselves portrayedon public monuments in Egyptianstyle and dress, and participated inEgyptian religious life. Alexander the Great 10. The last ruler from the Ptolemaicline was Cleopatra VII, whocommitted suicide with herlover Mark Antony, after CaesarAugustus had captured them.Queen Cleopatra The Ptolemies faced rebellions of native Egyptians oftencaused by an unwanted regime and were involved inforeign and civil wars that led to the decline of thekingdom and its annexation by Rome. Nevertheless Hellenistic culture continued to thrive inEgypt well after the Muslim Conquest. 11. Christianity was brought to Egyptby Saint Mark the Evangelist in the1st century. Diocletians reign marked thetransition from the Roman to theByzantine era in Egypt, when agreatnumber of EgyptianChristians were persecuted. The New Testament had by thenbeen translated into Egyptian. After the Council of Chalcedon inAD 451, a distinct Egyptian CopticChurch was firmly established.St Catherine Monastery 12. The Byzantines were able to regain control of the country after abrief Persian invasion early in the 7th century, until 639-42, whenEgypt was invaded and conquered by the Islamic Empire of MuslimArabs. When they defeated the Byzantine Armies in Egypt, the Arabs brought Sunni Islam to the country. Early in this period, Egyptians began to blend their new faith with indigenous beliefs and practices, leading to various Sufi orders that have flourished to this day. These earlier rites had survived the period of Coptic Christianity.1517 was the beginning of the Ottoman Turks rule to Egypt. Sincethen when it became a province of the Ottoman Empire by Selim I. 13. Due to its strategic and importantlocation between the east and the west,Egypt was invaded and colonized bythe French; Led Napoleon Bonaparte in1798. Napoleon Bonaparte The French colonization lasted only for three years and they wereexpelled in 1801 by Ottoman, Mamluk and British forces. However,this was followed by four years of anarchy in which Ottomans,Mamluks, and Albanians wrestled for power. Out of this chaos, the commander of theAlbanian regiment, Muhammad Ali emerged asa dominant figure and in 1805 he wasacknowledged by the Sultan in Istanbul as hisviceroy in Egypt. Muhammad Ali, an ambitious and able leader,established a dynasty that was to rule Egyptuntil the revolution of 1952. that later years, itbecame a British puppet.Muhammad Ali 14. After World War I, Saad Zaghlouland the Wafd Party led theEgyptian nationalist movement toa majority at the local LegislativeAssembly. Saad Zaghloul Egypts 1st modern revolution was on March 8th, 1919 when the British exiled Zaghlul and his associates to Malta. The revolt led the British to issue a unilateral declaration of Egypt Independence on 22nd, February 1922.Feminine demonstrations 1919 15. The new government drafted and implemented aconstitution in 1923 based on a parliamentary system. Saad Zaghloul was popularly elected as Prime Minister ofEgypt in 1924. In 1936, the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty was concluded. Continued instability due to remaining British influence andincreasing political involvement by the king led to thedissolution of the parliament in a military coupdtat known as the 1952 Revolution. The Free Officers Movement forced thelast King Farouk to abdicate in support ofhis son Fuad. British military presence in Egypt lasteduntil 1954. King Farouk 16. On 18th June 1953, the Egyptian Republic wasdeclared, with General Muhammad Nguib as thefirst President of this Republic.Naguib was forced to resign in 1954 by GamalAbdel Nasser, the real architect of the 1952movement, and was later put under house arrest. Muhammad NguibNasser assumed power as President in June, 1956.British forces completed their withdrawal from theoccupied Suez Canal Zone on 13th June 1956.As a result of the WB refusal to fund building theHigh Dam in Egypt, Nasser nationalized the SuezCanal on July 26th 1956, prompting the 1956 SuezCrisis. Naser 17. In the 1967 the Six Days War, Israel invaded and occupiedEgypts Sinai Peninsula. Sadat, successor of Naser after his deathin 1970, switchedEgyptsColdWar allegiance from the SU to the US. Sadat launched the Infitah (opening)economic reform policy, while clampingdown on religious and secular opposition. In 1973, Egypt, along with Syria, launchedthe October war. a surprise attack againstthe Israeli forces occupying the SinaiPeninsula and the Golan Heights. Sadat It was an attempt to regain part of the Sinai territory Israel hadcaptured 6 years earlier. Sadat hoped to seize some territory through military force, andthen regain the rest of the peninsula by diplomacy. 18. The second UN-mandated ceasefire haltedmilitary action. However, the war ended witha military stalemate, it presented Sadat with apolitical victory that later allowed him toregain the Sinai in return for peace withIsrael. Sadat made a historic visit to Israel in 1977, which led to the 1979 Peace Treaty in exchange for Israeli withdrawal from Sinai.Sadat in IsraelSadats initiative sparked enormous controversyin the Arab World and led to Egypts expulsionfrom the Arab League. However, it was supportedby most Egyptians.Succeeded by Hosni Mubarak, Sadat wasassassinated by a fundamentalist military soldierin Cairo in 1981. Mubarak 19. Lasted for more than 30 years,On 25th January 2011 widespreadprotests began against Mubaraksregime aiming to remove himfrom power. By January 29th it was becomingclear that Mubaraks governmenthad lost control when a curfeworder was ignored, and the armytook a semi-neutral stance onenforcing the curfew decree. 20. On February 11th 2011, Mubarak resigned and fledCairo. Vice President Omar Solyman announced thatMubarak had stepped down and that the Egyptian MilitaryCouncil would assume control of the nations affairs inthe short term. On February 13th 2011, the high level military commandof Egypt announced that both the constitution and theparliament of Egypt had been dissolved. According to decrees by MC Egypt held its 1stparliamentary election on 28th Nov. 2011; since theprevious regime had been in power. Turnout was high and there were no reports ofirregularities or violence, although members of someparties broke the ban on campaigning at polling placesby handing out pamphlets and banners 21. Basic DataFiscal Year1st July30th JuneEgyptian pound (EGP)Currency = 100 piasters 6.02685 = 1$ 22. Do you mind having a closer look at Egypt?! 23. Thank you for yourPrecious Time & for yourKind & EsteemedListening Q&A