A 220kV Substation

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It is all about the components used in an INDIAN 220kV Grid Transmission Substation.

Transcript of A 220kV Substation

  • 1.project report ON Industrial Training at 220kV Grid Transmission Substation Naubasta, Kanpur(U.P.) Ishank Ranjan 7th Sem B.Tech(EEE) H.C.S.T. Mathura

2. Acknowledgement This report is an outcome of the contributions made by some of the peoples. Therefore it is my sole responsibility to acknowledge them. I am greatly thankful to the sincere efforts made by Mr. R.B.Singh, J.E. (maintenance) without whom this project would be abstract. I also thank the staff of 220kV Grid Transmission Substation, Naubasta-Kanpur who took out there precious time to tell me about the various equipments. My special thanks is dedicated to Mr. Vijay Kumar, J.E. (maintenance). I would also mention the outstanding support given by my parents who paved the way for me to overcome with this project report. ISHANK RANJAN B.Tech (7th Sem) Electrical & Electronics Engineering Hindustan College of Science and Technology Mathura (U.P.) 3. Certificate This is to certify that ISHANK RANJAN, a student of Hindustan College of Science and Technology pursuing B.tech in Electrical & Electronics Engineering branch has undergone industrial training at 220kV Grid Transmission Substation, Naubasta-Kanpur under UPPTCL (Uttar Pradesh Power Transmission Corporation Ltd) from 9th of July, 2013 to 9th of August, 2013. And this project report is based on it. His conduct was good during the entire period of training. (Signature/date) (Signature/date) Mr. J.N. Prajapati Mr. R.B. Singh A.E. (o & m) J.E. (m) 4. Dedicated To My Parents Mrs. Ranjana Srivastava & Mr. R.C. Srivastava 5. Contents 1.Company Profile 2.Electrical Substation 2.1.Types Of Substation 2.1.1.Transmission Substation 2.1.2.Distribution Substation 2.1.3.Collector Substation 2.2.Components Of Substation 3.Conductors 3.1.Aluminum In Place Of Conductors 3.2.Types Of Conductors 3.2.1.AAC 3.2.2.AAAC 3.2.3.ACSR 3.2.4.ACAR 4.Transformers 4.1.Instrument Transformers 4.1.1.Current Transformer 4.1.2.Potential Transformer Capacitor Voltage Transformer 4.2.Auto Transformer 5.Capacitor Bank 6.Isolators 7.Circuit Breakers 7.1.Types Of Circuit Breakers 7.1.1.Sulfur Hexafluoride H V Circuit Breaker 7.1.2.Carbon Di Oxide H V Circuit Breaker 8.Lightning Arresters 6. 9.Description Of Substation 9.1.Panel Section 9.1.1.Control Panel Section 9.1.2.Relay And Protection Panel Section 9.2.Yard 10.Some Full Forms Related To Substation 11.Components Used In Yard(220kV Substation ,Naubasta) 12.Conclusion 7. Page | 1 Company Profile UP Power Transmission Corporation Limited, incorporated under the Companies Act 1956, was incorporated in 2006 with the main objective to acquire, establish, construct, take over, erect, lay, operate, run, manage, hire, lease, buy, sell, maintain, enlarge, alter, renovate, modernize, work and use electrical transmission lines and/or network through extra high voltage, high voltage and associated sub-stations, cables, wires, connected with transmission ancillary services, telecommunication and telemetering equipment in the State of Uttar Pradesh, India and elsewhere. Electricity Saved is Electricity Produced..! 8. Page | 2 Electrical Substation A substation is a part of an electrical generation, transmission, and distribution system. Substations transform voltage from high to low, or the reverse, or perform any of several other important functions. Between the generating station and consumer, electric power may flow through several substations at different voltage levels. Substations may be owned and operated by an electrical utility, or may be owned by a large industrial or commercial customer. Generally substations are unattended, relying on SCADA for remote supervision and control. A substation may include transformers to change voltage levels between high transmission voltages and lower distribution voltages, or at the interconnection of two different transmission voltages. The word substation comes from the days before the distribution system became a grid. As central generation stations became larger, smaller generating plants were converted to distribution stations, receiving their energy supply from a larger plant instead of using their own generators. The first substations were connected to only one power station, where the generators were housed, and were subsidiaries of that power ratio. As this project report is based on 220kV Grid Transmission Substation, Naubasta, Kanpur; so the components used there are described below. 9. Page | 3 2.1 Types of substation 1.Transmission substation A transmission substation connects two or more transmission lines. The simplest case is where all transmission lines have the same voltage. In such cases, substation contains high-voltage switches that allow lines to be connected or isolated for fault clearance or maintenance. A transmission station may have transformers to convert between two transmission voltages, voltage control/power factor correction devices such as capacitors, reactors or static VAR compensators and equipment such as phase shifting transformers to control power flow between two adjacent power systems. 2.Distribution substation A distribution substation transfers power from the transmission system to the distribution system of an area. It is uneconomical to directly connect electricity consumers to the main transmission network, unless they use large amounts of power, so the distribution station reduces voltage to a level suitable for local distribution. The input for a distribution substation is typically at least two transmission or sub transmission lines. Input voltage may be, for example, 115 kV, or whatever is common in the area. The output is a number of feeders. Distribution voltages are typically medium voltage, between 2.4 kV and 33 kV depending on the size of the area served and the practices of the local utility. The feeders run along streets overhead (or underground, in some cases) and power the distribution transformers at or near the customer premises. 10. Page | 4 3.Collector substation In distributed generation projects such as a wind farm, a collector substation may be required. It resembles a distribution substation although power flow is in the opposite direction, from many wind turbines up into the transmission grid. Usually for economy of construction the collector system operates around 35 kV and the collector substation steps up voltage to a transmission voltage for the grid. The collector substation can also provide power factor correction if it is needed, metering and control of the wind farm. In some special cases a collector substation can also contain an HVDC converter station. 2.2 Components of Substation Various components are used at grid transmission substations. These are as follows :- (i) Conductors (ii) Current Transformers (iii) Potential Transformers (iv) Power Transformers (Auto Transformer) (v) Capacitive Voltage Transformers (vi) Line Isolators (vii) Bus Isolators (viii) Lightning Arresters (ix) Capacitor Bank (x) Circuit Breakers 11. Page | 5 Conductors In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material which permits the flow of electric charges in one or more directions. For example, a wire is an electrical conductor that can carry electricity along its length. In metals such as copper or aluminium, the movable charged particles are electrons. Positive charges may also be mobile, such as the cationic electrolyte(s) of a battery, or the mobile protons of the proton conductor of a fuel cell. Insulators are non-conducting materials with few mobile charges and which support only insignificant electric currents. 3.1 Aluminium in place of Copper: a) Much lower cost b) Lighter weight c) Larger diameter d) Lower voltage gradient less ionization/corona 3.2 Types of conductors used in 220kV substations are:- a) AAC -> All Aluminium Conductors b) AAAC -> All Aluminium Alloy Conductors c) ACSR -> Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced d) ACAR -> Aluminium Conductor Alloy Reinforced 12. Page | 6 All Aluminium Conductors (AAC) APPLICATIONS AAC are used primarily for overhead transmission and primary and secondary distribution, where ampacity must be maintained and a lighter conductor (compared to ACSR) is desired, and when conductor strength is not a critical factor. Classes B and C are used primarily as bus, apparatus connectors and jumpers, where additional flexibility is required. CONSTRUCTION Aluminium 1350-H19 wires, concentrically stranded. 13. Page | 7 All Aluminium-Alloy Conductor (AAAC) APPLICATIONS Used as bare overhead conductor for primary and secondary distribution. Designed utilizing a high-strength aluminium- alloy to achieve a high strength-to-weight ratio; affords good sag characteristics. Aluminium-alloy gives 6201-T81 gives AAAC higher resistance to corrosion than ACSR. CONSTRUCTION Aluminium-alloy 6201-T81 wires, concentrically stranded. 14. Page | 8 Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR) APPLICATIONS Used as bare overhead transmission conductor and as primary and secondary distribution conductor and messenger support. ACSR offers optimal strength for line design. Variable steel core stranding enables desired strength to be achieved without sacrificing ampacity. CONSTRUCTION Aluminium 1350-H19 wires, concentrically stranded about a steel core. Standard core wire for ACSR is class A galvanized. Class A core stranding is also available in zinc-5% aluminium - mischmetal alloy coating. Additional corrosion protection is available through the application of grease to the core or infusion of the complete cable with grease. ACSR conductor is also available in non-specular. 15. Page | 9 Names of ASCRs S.No. Names Size(mm)* 1. Rabbit 6/1/3.55 2. Panther 30/7/3.00 3. Zebra 54/7/3.00 4. Moose 54/7/3.53 * No. Of strands / No. Of steel Strands/diameter of strands 16. Page | 10 Aluminium Conductor Aluminium Alloy Reinforced (ACAR) APPLICATIONS Used as bare overhead transmission cable an