9/4/2015 Lesson learnt from the Slum up-gradation under JnNURM Scheme Empirical evidences in Surat...

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Transcript of 9/4/2015 Lesson learnt from the Slum up-gradation under JnNURM Scheme Empirical evidences in Surat...

  • Slide 1
  • 9/4/2015 Lesson learnt from the Slum up-gradation under JnNURM Scheme Empirical evidences in Surat city of Western India Arjun Patel, Centre for Social Studies, Surat, Gujarat, India. drarjunbpatel@gmail.com 9/4/20151
  • Slide 2
  • Abstract Based on few case studies,the SMC documents and relevant secondary study materials on Slums of Surat city, the present paper tries to evaluate the Slum re- development program in Surat and tries raise some of the issues for discussion. Surat, a historical city in Western India, emerging as one of the fastest growing cities of Asia, particularly in the wake of new economic reforms in post 1990s has experiences many urbanization and environmental problems. Surat city is selected as a `model city' under a climate adaptation strategy and under Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JnNURM) Program. Project proposal sanctioned under the JnNURM title includes Slum up-grading or making the slum as pucca residential unit. The study observed the kind of displacement and resettlement process are going on and how it has resulted in marginalization of the urban poor. The Slum dwellers felt that the Surat Municipal Corporation (SMC) has `cheated them by pushing them out at the distance places in the name of development or under the excuse of reviving the city heritage. 2
  • Slide 3
  • 4 September 2015 I Introduction 9/4/20153
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  • Structure of the Paper I Introduction II Industrialization, Population Growth and Housing question in Surat city III CDP, Slum up-gradation Program under JnNURM IV Characteristics of Slums and Slums dwellers V Demolition, Protests, violation of Human Rights VI Marginalization of Slum dwellers VII Concluding Remarks VIII Issues for Discussion I Introduction II Industrialization, Population Growth and Housing question in Surat city III CDP, Slum up-gradation Program under JnNURM IV Characteristics of Slums and Slums dwellers V Demolition, Protests, violation of Human Rights VI Marginalization of Slum dwellers VII Concluding Remarks VIII Issues for Discussion 4
  • Slide 5
  • 9/4/2015 Rationale of the Study More than ten million of urban poor have been reshuffled under the slum up-gradation project in India just by adopting guide line based on State Regulations (SRs), which has no legal binding to the authority and were evolved just for facilitating the administrative procedure,. Due to the policy laps, as described in the text lot many risks the poor people living in the Slums have faced. In absence of this the affected population came on road often to solve this problem but it has not yield fruitful result. Social Scientists have yet to engage with this problem which has larger ramification on the life of millions of the urban poor. In this context, the author has carried out the pilot study to understand the nature of Slum redevelopment program in Surat, Gujarat, India, where Slum re-development program has been going on war footing. More than ten million of urban poor have been reshuffled under the slum up-gradation project in India just by adopting guide line based on State Regulations (SRs), which has no legal binding to the authority and were evolved just for facilitating the administrative procedure,. Due to the policy laps, as described in the text lot many risks the poor people living in the Slums have faced. In absence of this the affected population came on road often to solve this problem but it has not yield fruitful result. Social Scientists have yet to engage with this problem which has larger ramification on the life of millions of the urban poor. In this context, the author has carried out the pilot study to understand the nature of Slum redevelopment program in Surat, Gujarat, India, where Slum re-development program has been going on war footing. 5
  • Slide 6
  • 9/4/2015 Objectives of the Study The objectives of the study were to To explore the kind of Slum evacuation and resettlement process that has been going in Surat; To identify the livelihood problems encountered by the affected people during the process; To analyze the factors responsible for weakening the ideas of the program; To raise some issues for discussions based on the study. 9/4/20156
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  • 4 September 2015 Methodology of the study Based on broad talking points the Case studies and FGD were attempted to look in the context some of the guiding principles enunciated in the policy statement, such as : -adopting a humane approach towards urban poor, - incorporating social justice and gender equity, -ensure community participation and -creating enabling conditions for the poor. Based on broad talking points the Case studies and FGD were attempted to look in the context some of the guiding principles enunciated in the policy statement, such as : -adopting a humane approach towards urban poor, - incorporating social justice and gender equity, -ensure community participation and -creating enabling conditions for the poor. 9/4/20157
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  • 4 September 2015 Instruments of data collection The study used both primary and secondary sources of data collection. In all, total 21 Case studies of the Slum dwellers were held. Through the help of talking points, 10 FGD were conducted wherein, total 100 people took part. Interviewed few SMC officials. Two types of talking points were prepared; related to Slum locality- (old as well as relocation site) and related to the respondents. Along with the socio-economic background of the respondents they were asked opinion about the JnNURM scheme, their experiences of displacement and resettlement. The secondary information were collected though the used the records/ documents of the SMC, Newspaper clippings,Petition filed in the Court., the memorandums / applications submitted by the Slum dwellers. The study used both primary and secondary sources of data collection. In all, total 21 Case studies of the Slum dwellers were held. Through the help of talking points, 10 FGD were conducted wherein, total 100 people took part. Interviewed few SMC officials. Two types of talking points were prepared; related to Slum locality- (old as well as relocation site) and related to the respondents. Along with the socio-economic background of the respondents they were asked opinion about the JnNURM scheme, their experiences of displacement and resettlement. The secondary information were collected though the used the records/ documents of the SMC, Newspaper clippings,Petition filed in the Court., the memorandums / applications submitted by the Slum dwellers. 9/4/20158
  • Slide 9
  • 4 September 2015 II Industrialization, Population Growth and Housing question in Surat city 9/4/20159
  • Slide 10
  • 4 September 2015 2.1. Industrialization and Urbanization in Surat In the wake of new economic reforms third world countries have adopted industrial path of development and gave impetus to the process of industrialization for which it has liberalized their developmental policies for attracting the national and international capital. As per the Industrial Entrepreneur Memoranda (IEMs) filed, the total investments during 1981- 1988 and between 1988-97 were INR 33,251 Crores (USD 7.92 billion) and INR 35,975 Crores (USD 8.57 billion) in Surat and its adjoin areas. In the wake of new economic reforms third world countries have adopted industrial path of development and gave impetus to the process of industrialization for which it has liberalized their developmental policies for attracting the national and international capital. As per the Industrial Entrepreneur Memoranda (IEMs) filed, the total investments during 1981- 1988 and between 1988-97 were INR 33,251 Crores (USD 7.92 billion) and INR 35,975 Crores (USD 8.57 billion) in Surat and its adjoin areas.
  • Slide 11
  • 4 September 2015 Large /Medium Scale Industrialization took place in and around Surat in the wake of post liberalization era The SEZs (9) Industrial Estates SURSEZ Valod Surat, Apparel SEZ Khatodara, Gems & Jewelry SEZ Bardoli, Essar Hazira SEZ, Gaviyar-Magdalla Essar Power SEZ, Olpad Hazira(GSPCL) Katargam Surat, Ichhapor Bhatpor (IOC) Apparel park and Hazira Doshwada have came up. Industrial parks (7) Pandesara Industrial Parks / Developers Hazira (Reliance) M/s Gujarat Eco Textile Park Ltd. Surat. SachinM/S Fairdeal Textile Park Ltd, Surat Ichhapor BhatporM/s Shri Laxminarayan Industrial Cooperative Sachin (DGDCL)Service Ltd, Surat M/S Surat Super Yarn Park Ltd. Surat. The SEZs (9) Industrial Estates SURSEZ Valod Surat, Apparel SEZ Khatodara, Gems & Jewelry SEZ Bardoli, Essar Hazira SEZ, Gaviyar-Magdalla Essar Power SEZ, Olpad Hazira(GSPCL) Katargam Surat, Ichhapor Bhatpor (IOC) Apparel park and Hazira Doshwada have came up. Industrial parks (7) Pandesara Industrial Parks / Developers Hazira (Reliance) M/s Gujarat Eco Textile Park Ltd. Surat. SachinM/S Fairdeal Textile Park Ltd, Surat Ichhapor BhatporM/s Shri Laxminarayan Industrial Cooperative Sachin (DGDCL)Service Ltd, Surat M/S Surat Super Yarn Park Ltd. Surat. There are over 41,300 small scale industries (SSI) functioning in Surat district. Most of the small scale industries are located at talukas such as Choryasi (Western Surat), Mangrol (Northern Surat), Olpad (Northern Surat), Mandvi (Central Surat) and Palsana (Southern Surat). Source: Surat District Profile 2006-07. More than 20 large and medium sized industries are located in Hazira village, including Bharat Petroleum Corporation, Cairn Energy, Essar Power, Hindustan Petroleum and Larsen & Toubro, Reliance, NTPC among others. In 2004, Shell established an LNG Terminal at Hazira. In a recent development, Hazira Port Pvt. Ltd and PSA Ltd,