9.4 War with Mexico Objectives: 1.To summarize the conflicting attitudes on waging war with Mexico...
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9.4 War with Mexico Objectives: 1.To summarize the conflicting attitudes on waging war with Mexico 2.To describe key battles that helped the United States win the war with Mexico 3.To identify U.S. territories gained from Mexico. Slide 2 Slide 3 Congressional Scales, 1850 The question of how a war with Mexico might unbalance the nation politically weighed heavily on people's minds as the nation entered the 1850s. In this cartoon, lithographer Nathaniel Currier-- who later would found the famous graphic art company Currier and Ives-- illustrates the problem. Trying to balance the Wilmot Proviso against Southern Rights, the president seeks to keep congressional representatives from the North and the South in balance as well. (Library of Congress) Congressional Scales, 1850 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Slide 4 War with Mexico! Polk wants the whole Texas, Cali. and N. Mexico Border issue with Mexico Nueces or Rio Grande? (2:00 min)Nueces or Rio Grande President Polk tries to buy California from Mexico and negotiate the true border. His envoy, John Slidell, is refused. Polk orders Gen. Zachary Taylor and 4,000 men to the Rio Grande (Mexico believes the border is the Nueces River) April 25, 1846 Mexican troops kill 11 Americans They have spilled American blood on American soil!!! Spot resolution (Abraham Lincoln) US declares war Slavery again becomes a huge issue (Wilmot Proviso) Slide 5 Charles Sumner The lives of Mexicans are sacrificed in this cause; and a domestic question, which should be reserved for the bloodless debate in our own country, is transferred to the fields of battle in a foreign land. What does he mean by this? Slide 6 Map: The Mexican War Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Slide 7 The course of the war Stephen Kearny liberates New Mexico without a shot fired John C. Fremont in Nothern California and declare the Bear Flag Republic in 1846. Gen. Zachary Taylor defeats overwhelming Mexican forces at Buena Vista Gen. Winfield Scott is victorious at Veracruz. Leads US troops to Mexico City 1847, wins victory against great odds. Slide 8 Map: Major Battles of the Mexican-American War Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Slide 9 Peace Now or More War? Debate of 1847 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo signed in 1848, US to pay $15 million for land gained and assume claims of US citizens against Mexico Division in Congress Whigs call for end of war. Expansionists want to continue the invasion Gadsden Purchase extends US border south to current boundary for $10 million in 1853. Slide 10 Mexican War: After Effects Increases the US by 1/3 More land than acquired in LA Purchase US establishes the power of its military to foreign powers Slavery issue is increasingly divisive Bitter relations with Mexico Slide 11 Election of 1848 War Hero Zachary Taylor becomes the 12 th President Slide 12 California Gold Rush!!! January 1848 gold discovered at Sutters Mill in California. Americans everywhere drop everything, literally, and rush to California, called the gold rush. Migration to CA jumps from 400 in 1848 to 44,000 in 1850. New migrants call themselves forty- niners. California applies for statehood as a free state. S.F. 1847, 1850 Slide 13 TERMS James K. Polk Zachary Taylor Stephen Kearney Bear Flag Republic Winfield Scott Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Gadsden Purchase Forty-niners Gold rush Objectives: 1. To summarize the conflicting attitudes on waging war with Mexico 2. To describe key battles that helped the United States win the war with Mexico 3. To identify U.S. territories gained from Mexico.