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  • 8/9/2019 8210 Exam 1 Topics


    8210 Exam 1 Topics

    1. What is a work breakdown structure and its purpose?

    A deliverable-oriented hierarchical decomposition of the work to be executed by the project team toaccomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables."

    There are three reasons to use a W! in your projects. The first is that is helps more accurately andspecifically define and orani#e the scope of the total project. The most common way this is done is by

    usin a hierarchical tree structure. $ach level of this structure breaks the project deliverables or objectives

    down to more specific and measurable chunks. The second reason for usin a W! in your projects is to

    help with assinin responsibilities% resource allocation% monitorin the project% and controllin the project. The W! makes the deliverables more precise and concrete so that the project team knows exactly

    what has to be accomplished within each deliverable. This also allows for better estimatin of cost% risk%

    and time because you can work from the smaller tasks back up to the level of the entire project. &inally% itallows you double check all the deliverables' specifics with the stakeholders and make sure there is nothin

    missin or overlappin

    2. Functional and nonfunctional reuirements.

    Fun !e"

    (n software enineerin )and !ystems $nineerin*% a functional reuirement defines a function of

    a system and its components. A function is described as a set of inputs% the behavior% and outputs )see

    also software*. &unctional requirements may be calculations% technical details% data manipulation and processin

    and other specific functionality that define what  a system is supposed to accomplish. ehavioral requirements

    describin all the cases where the system uses the functional requirements are captured in use cases. &unctional

    requirements are supported by non-functional requirements )also known as quality requirements*% which impose

    constraints on the desin or implementation )such as performance requirements% security% or reliability*.

    +enerally% functional requirements are expressed in the form "system must do ,requirement"% while non-functional requirements are "system shall be ,requirement". The plan for

    implementin functional  requirements is detailed in the system design. The plan for implementin non-

     functional  requirements is detailed in the system architecture

     Non Func Req:

    n systems enineerin and requirements enineerin% a non#functional reuirement is a requirement that

    specifies criteria that can be used to jude the operation of a system% rather than specific behaviors. This should

     be contrasted with functional requirements that define specific behavior or functions. The plan for

    implementin functional  requirements is detailed in the system design. The plan for implementin non-

     functional  requirements is detailed in the system architecture.

    roadly% functional requirements define what a system is supposed to do and non-functional requirements

    define how a system is supposed to be.

    Typically non-functional requirements fall into areas such as

    • Accessibility

    • /apacity% current and forecast


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    • /ompliance

    • 0ocumentation

    • 0isaster recovery

    • $fficiency

    • $ffectiveness

    • $xtensibility

    • &ault tolerance

    • (nteroperability• 1aintainability

    • 2rivacy

    • 2ortability

    • 3uality

    • 4eliability

    • 4esilience

    • 4esponse time

    • 4obustness

    • !calability

    • !ecurity

    • !tability

    • !upportability


    $. %se case dia&rams # what the' are and wh' use them

    A use case dia&ram at its simplest is a representation of a user's interaction with the system and depictin thespecifications of a use case. A use case diaram can portray the different types of users of a system and the

    various ways that they interact with the system. This type of diaram is typically used in conjunction with the

    textual use case and will often be accompanied by other types of diarams as well.

    While a use case itself miht drill into a lot of detail about every possibility% a use-case diaram can help

     provide a hiher-level view of the system. (t has been said before that "5se case diarams are the blueprints for

    your system".678 They provide the simplified and raphical representation of what the system must actually do.

    0ue to their simplistic nature% use case diarams can be a ood communication tool for stakeholders. The

    drawins attempt to mimic the real world and provide a view for the stakeholder to understand how the system

    is oin to be desined. !iau and 9ee conducted research to determine if there was a valid situation for use case

    diarams at all or if they were unnecessary. What was found was that the use case diarams conveyed the intent

    of the system in a more simplified manner to stakeholders and that they were "interpreted more completely than

    class diarams".6:8

    The purpose of the use case diarams is simply to provide the hih level view of the system and convey therequirements in layman's terms for the stakeholders. Additional diarams and documentation can be used to

     provide a complete functional and technical view of the system.

    (. )haracteristics of &ood user stories.


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     ;eotiable% 7% :% ?% @% % 7?% :7% ?B% @@

    = That is why we use this scaleC the numbers are enerated by takin the sum of the last : numbers

    = !ometimes the followin descriptions are attached to the numbers 7 smallest% : small% ? medium% @

    medium-lare% lare% 7? very lare...etc. )stay mostly in the 7-7? rane*

    D (f your story point estimate is reater than 7?% itEs an epic story that sFb broken down into smaller stories.

    The numbers are enerated by takin the sum of the last : numbers

    /omplexity is not linear% it oes up exponentially

    +. ,crum -aster !esponsibilities


    Facilitatin& the teams pro&ress toward the &oal !crumFAile 1asters are trained as team

    facilitators and are constantly enaed in challenin the old norms of development while keepin the

    team focused on the oals of the iteration.

    /eadin& the teams efforts in continuous improement This includes helpin the team improve%

    helpin the team take responsibility for their actions% and helpin the team become problem solvers for


    Enforcin& the rules of the a&ile process The rules of aile are lihtweiht and flexible% but they arerules nonetheless% and this role is responsible for reinforcin the rules with the team.

    Eliminatin& impediments 1any blockin issues will be beyond the teamEs authority or will require

    support from other teams. This role actively addresses these issues so that the team can remain focused

    on achievin the objectives of the iteration.

    . Explain what a release plan is.


    The purpose of the 4elease 2lannin 1eetin is to have everyone in the team understand and commit todeliverin the areed release by the areed date. Those present at a release plannin meetin include the

     product owner plus any other stakeholders that can add valuable input% the developers and testers% andthe scrum master.

    Welcome% (ntroductions% Aenda% 1eetin +oals% +round 4ules% 2arkin 9ot% /onsensus


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    +ive points to stories

    0iscuss and 0ocument what needs to be done in iteration >

    0etermine !tory 2riorities > 2roduct owner needs to pickH

    0etermine dependencies

    /reate a 4elease 2lan

    Team slots the stories in iterations

    8. )ommon characteristics of proects

    3roect is that plannin in which we try to best under a perfect system for makin product or buyin any

    fixed asset or creatin services for our customers.

    )haracteristics of a 3roect 

    1. 4n' proect will hae a start date and end date

    it is the main feature of project that it has a start date and end date. ecause if we increase the time of

    completin of any business project% cost of project will increase. !o% it is necessary to fix the time forcompletin any project.

    2. 3roect For !esults 

    All projects are made for ettin some result. 2rojects are always completed and we et new thin after

    completin of project.

    $. 3roects differ from operations

    Gperations are different from project. Gperations are day to day work and for this we can use operation

    costin but project is bi plan for doin any major construction.

    (. 4 proect usuall' needs resources to delier its results

    With ettin resources for completin project% it will be very touh to complete the project and brin result

    in the front of manaer.

    *. -aor proects can be diided into subproects

    All major projects can be divided into subprojects. !uppose% you have to construct a buildin. &or makin

     buildin% you have to take subproject for diin the earth or make a structure accordin to the heiht of


    5. 3-6s 73roect -ana&ement 6nstitutes9 proect areas and what each means.

    Answer ,cope mana&ement I definin and manain all the work required to successfully complete the project

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    Time mana&ement I estimatin how lon it will take to complete the work% developin an acceptable

     project schedule% and ensurin timely completion of the project.

    )ost mana&ement I preparin and manain the budet for the project

    :ualit' mana&ement I $nsurin the project will satisfy the stated or implied needs for which it was


    ;uman resource mana&ement I makin effective use of the people involved with the project

    )ommunications mana&ement I eneratin% collectin% disseminatin% and storin project information

    !isk mana&ement I identifyin% analy#in% and respondin to risk related to the project

    3rocurement mana&ement I acquirin oods and services that are needed for a project from outside

    the performin orani#ation

    10. ,ta&es or phases in a t'pical waterfall proect.

    11. Water methodolo&'.

    12. 4&ile -anifesto

    Answers Gur hihest priority is to satisfy the customer throuh earl' and continuous delier' of valuable

    software or new business processes. Welcome chan&in& reuirements% even late in development. Aile processes harness chane for the

    customer's competitive advantae. Workin software is the primar' measure of pro&ress.

    0eliver workin software frequently% from a couple of weeks to a couple of months% with a preference to

    the shorter timescale. usiness people and developers must work to&ether dail' throuhout the project.

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    1$. ,tories and stor' pointin&

    1(. 6teration 0

    0urin iteration >% the team will be workin on &ettin& the enironment setup. +ettin this work done

    in iteration > ensures that the entire team is dedicated to business stories and delierin& alues.

    The meanin of done in iteration > is to et its major deliverables done. !ome of its deliverables are

    ● The to-be process model.

    ● Architecture 0iaram% 0ata 1odels● Jih level user interface determines% !ite ;aviation

    ● 4elease 2lannin !ession complete

    ● Enironment setup 7serers set up> initial database tables setup> an' tools needed for deelopers are

    installed and workin&9

    ● Technolo&' decisions made

    -product backlo

    -story estimation

    -iteration backlo

    - $nvironment !etup- Architecture oalsF approach has been identified

    - finali#e team

    #ather ,tories

    #3rioriti=e stories accordin& to business alue and dependenc'

    #Estimate the complexit' of stor' usin& stor' points

    #Estimate what will be done in iteration 1


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      1. %se historical aera&es

      2. Wait until 'ou run at least one iteration

      $. Forecast it

    4sk the team> BWhich stories on the list do 'ou think 'ou can &et done within the

    first iteration?D

      %se the initial elocit' as a startin& point for deelopin& 'our release plan.

    20. 6teration plannin&

    21. 6teration demonstration

    22. T'pical makeup of a ,)!%-

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     boojum%L KWrite ⁢esse fixture for the boojum%L etc. !ome task cards don't et correspondin test cards )K&ix

    u ;o. ?:7 in u#illaL* so those are placed in the KTo

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    A burn down chart for a completed iteration is shown above and can be read by knowin the followin.

    O-Axis The projectFiteration timeline

    P-AxisThe work that needs to be completed for the project. The time or story point estimates for the

    work remainin will be represented by this axis.

    2roject !tart

    2ointThis is the farthest point to the left of the chart and occurs at day > of the projectFiteration.

    2roject $nd


    This is the point that is farthest to the riht of the chart and occurs on the predicted last day of

    the projectFiteration

    (deal Work



    This is a straiht line that connects the start point to the end point. At the start point% the ideal

    line shows the sum of the estimates for all the tasks )work* that needs to be completed. At the

    end point% the ideal line intercepts the x-axis showin that there is no work left to be

    completed. !ome people take issue with callin this an "ideal" line% as it's not enerally true

    that the oal is to follow this line. This line is a mathematical calculation based on estimates%and the estimates are more likely to be in error than the work. The oal of a burn down chart is

    to display the proress toward completion and ive an estimate on the likelihood of timely


    Actual Work



    This shows the actual work remainin. At the start point% the actual work remainin is the

    same as the ideal work remainin but as time proresses% the actual work line fluctuates above

    and below the ideal line dependin on how effective the team is. (n eneral% a new point is

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    added to this line each day of the project. $ach day% the sum of the time or story point

    estimates for work that was recently completed is subtracted from the last point in the line to

    determine the next point.

    1easurin performance

    Actual Work 9ine is above

    the (deal Work 9ine

    (f the actual work line is above the ideal work line% it means that there is more

    work left than oriinally predicted and the project is behind schedule.

    Actual Work 9ine is below

    the (deal Work 9ine

    (f the actual work line is below the ideal work line% it means that there is less

    work left than oriinally predicted and the project is ahead of schedule.

    2*. -ana&in& proect impediments in an 4&ile ,)!%- proect

    n !crum% an impediment is anythin that keeps a team from bein productive. An impediment can literally beanythin% from a team member who is slackin to a free#in team room. ut if itEs blockin the team from

     performin to the best of its abilities% itEs an impediment.

    To help maximi#e efficiency% the role of the !crum1aster  is completely dedicated to resolvin impediments.

    The!crum1aster  works in various capacities% includin helpin the 2roduct Gwner  prepare the backlo andensurin that important !crum artifacts are visible% but the !crum1asterEs primary responsibility is to eliminate

    impediments and facilitate a teamEs optimum performance. (n this arranement% it is the teamEs responsibility to

    communicate what impediments are holdin them back. This communication occurs each day in the daily!crum% when team members report on what theyEve accomplished in the past :B hours% what they plan to

    accomplish in the next :B hours% and what impediments obstruct them. !crum systemati#es feedback to ensurethat a!crum1aster  always knows exactly what challenes are keepin the team from success and can work to

    remove them.

    (tEs also possible for impediments to apply to an orani#ation% particularly in reard to !crum. Qust like a broken

    keyboard% for instance% would prevent a team member from writin code% an orani#ational Kculture clashL

    obstructs a smooth !crum adoption. (n scenarios like this% a company needs an advocate inside the company tohelp manaement reconi#e the benefits of !crum. asically% such an advocate would be actin like

    a!crum1aster % removin barriers before a sinle !crum team has been created. !till% even an orani#ational

    !crum advocate does not ensure that !crum will stick. ut% like the !crum1aster who works closely with a

    team to eliminate barriers% an internal !crum advocate helps enact positive chane and contributes toward asuccessful !crum adoption.


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    2. Aalue chain in a business or institution


  • 8/9/2019 8210 Exam 1 Topics


    (ntellect an' failure to full' utili=e the time and talent of people

    $0. ai=en

    RA( means 'chane' or 'the action to correct'.

    S$; means 'ood

    Rai#en is a chane for the ood

    Rai#en $vent Rai#en is an approach to continuous process improvement. (t is a way of thinkin and

     behavin. (t is about unleashin the creative power of people actually doin the work% in order to desinmore effective and efficient processes.

    Aaluable" ecause you will have complete understandin of the current performance% fiure out what is

    waste with current process% analyses aps and define better process% improve current process and

    measure the chanes for success

    $1. ai=en principles

    !ay no to status quo% implement new methods and assume they will work

    (f somethin is wron% correct it

    Accept no excuses and make thins happen

    (mprove everythin continuously Abolish old% traditional concepts

    e economical. !ave money throuh small improvements and spend the saved money on further

    improvements $mpower everyone to take part in problems' solvin

    efore makin decisions% ask "why" five times to et to the root cause. )@ Why 1ethod*

    +et information and opinions from multiple people

    4emember that improvement has no limits. ;ever stop tryin to improve I /ontinuous improvement

    $2. ai=en eent

      4re formali=ed actiities that or&ani=ations use to achiee rapid and dramatic improements and

    pro&ressiel' shift their culture.

      The kai=en eent ma' be a few da's to a few weeks at the most to

    Cetermine the current state of a process 7baseline9

      Cescribe the problems

      4&ree on a future state

    )onduct experiments to determine the future state can be achieed b' the improements

      Cefine and accomplish the uick wins to &ain most of the benefits

      4dd remainin& tasks to a backlo& to achiee continuous improement

      Wh' Co a kai=en Eent? G Establish> chan&e and improe a process.

    $$. ,teps in the ai=en process

    0efine 2rocess 2roblem

    1easure /urrent 2erformance

    (dentify Waste in /urrent 2rocess

    /onduct +ap U 4oot /ause Analysis

    0efine !hould-e 2rocess

    0evelop 1easurements for !uccess

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    (mprove /urrent 2rocess

    !tandardi#e Gperatin 2rocedures

    0evelop V> 0ay Action 2lan

    $(. Aoice of the customer and how to obtain this. HH



    /ustomer Gbservation


    /ompetitive enchmarks

    Ke A /ustomerL

    &ocus +roups

    $*. Aalue add> non#alue add and reuired non#alue add steps

    To provide any product or service% you have to use resources like money% materials% labor% time% andinformation. The oal is to provide the reatest amount of value to customers while utili#in the least amount

    of your resources. This idea of addin value to products and services is a key concept of 9ean. (t is defined as

    anythin for which the customer would be willin to pay. (f what you are providin is not somethin thecustomer would be willin to pay you for% then you are not providin value to the customer.

    Any time you bein analy#in a process% you want to look at each step and determine if it is contributin to thevalue of the desired output. $ach step can be classified into one of three cateories

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    locate their information in A!5Es database. Without this step% the creation of the physical card would not be

    able to happen.

     ;on- so lon& as 'ou know how man' items

    'ou are workin& on and how often 'ou finish one of them

    $5. ,wim lane alue stream map

    Aalue stream mappin& is a lean manufacturin& techniue used to analyses and desin the flow of

    materials and the information needed to brin a product or service to a customer.

    !wim lane is a conenient way to show tasks that moe from one department to other. And can also

    illustrate the current state and future state

    4dd ke' metric such as lead times and alue added times for each task.

    (0. Work in 3rocess 7W639

    1eans the work that is needed to be done% or which is incomplete.

    Work in process sound like manufacturin% but we should think of them as thins in process )T(2*. This

    includes the phone call you have to return% checks waitin to be processed% and applications for loans or

    insurance that need to be processed.

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    0elaysF 3ueue Time (f you have W(2% you have work that is waitin to be worked on. Any time that

    work sits in a queue you can consider that a Kdelay.L

    (1. 3rocess )'cle Efficienc' 73)E9

    /alculation of process cycle efficiency

    1ost processes are Kun-lean.L @> or more of work is non-value add.

    2rocess /ycle $fficiency )2/$* is usually less than 7>.

      2/$ X YYY

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    (n non-customer-facin processes% W(2 can be reduced by usin a 2ull system. (n any operation that doesnEt deal directly with customers I that is% where W(2 is orders or calls or

    emails or reports% not people I controllin W(2 is much easier than improvin completion rate.

    Whenever% and wherever possible% limit how much work oes into a process queue at a iven time.

    Work released into pull systems in a service environment means makin deliberate decisions about

    timin of work released into a process &or example% you may want to triae bid opportunities based on

    0ifficulty of bid

    +ross 2rofit dollars

    /ompetitive advantae

    Reys to create effective pull system.

    (dentifyFconfirm the service level you want to achieve )ask your customers about this*

    0etermine your work roupEs completion rate.

    5se 9ittleEs law to determine W(2.

    /ap active work in the process to the maximum W(2. 2ut all work in the incomin buffer 

    0evelop a triae system for determinin which incomin work should be released into the process.

    /ontinue with other process improvements so you can improve completion rates and further reduce lead


    5se a Ranban board with W(2 limits to limit work in process.

    ((. anban


     (s a schedulin system for  lean and just-in-time )Q(T* productionN6:8 Ranban is a system to control

    the loistical chain from a production point of view% and is not an inventory control system

    ? rules of Ranban !trict 3ueue 9imits


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    (. 3areto chart as it relates to anal'=in& the ale stream map.

    (8. Aalue of mockups and protot'pin& in proects



    +enerate ideas quicklyC review and iterate sooner 

    /ommunicate easily with desiners% developers% and product manaers

    (terate in real time with your stakeholders

    /an be used as requirements and user stories documentation

    3ictures and protot'pin& tools plays a major role in minimi#in the documentations. (ts

    encouraed to take screenshots rather than creatin complex

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    [ !ource +artner 

    [ 5nit tests can be combined into Test !uitesE which can be used in )ontinuous

      6nte&ration testin&

    [ 6deal for BcoreD part of applications

    [ 0ifficult areas for T00

    N Workflow and process

    [ 0ata from leacy systems

    [ 5ser (nterfaces

    [ 2itfall

    1isinterpret the requirement% misinterpret the test case% and catch in 4cceptance Testin&.

    *$. )ontinuous inte&ration

    )ontinuous inte&ration implements continuous processes of appl'in& ualit' control P small pieces of

    effort> applied freuentl'

    The continuous interation is the process where

    ● 0evelopers should commit all chanes at least once a day )once per feature built F each unit test case passed*%

    (t is counter intuitive for developers to check in their code frequentlyC their instincts are to make sure that an

    entire task is complete before makin it public.

    ● The system should be built )compiled* as soon as code is checked in.

    The four main process on continuous interation are

    1. Watch - watch for chanes checked into the source code repository.