76 questions. 4 quadrants: Right Upper Quadrants(RUQ): Liver, gallbladder, right kidney Left...

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Benchmark 3 Anatomy and Physiology 76 questions

Transcript of 76 questions. 4 quadrants: Right Upper Quadrants(RUQ): Liver, gallbladder, right kidney Left...

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  • 76 questions
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  • 4 quadrants: Right Upper Quadrants(RUQ): Liver, gallbladder, right kidney Left Upper Quadrants(LUQ): Stomach, spleen, pancreas, left kidney Right Lower Quadrants(RLQ): Appendix, right ovary Left Lower Quadrants(LLQ): Left ovary
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  • Mitosis: 2 diploid cells The division of a cell(asexual, any cell) Meiosis: 4 haploid cells Division of sex cells How many chromosomes do we have? 23 pairs of chromosomes a total of 46 Diffusion: is the movement of molecules from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration Osmosis: may be simply defined as the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane(move from more water to less water) Filtration: is the movement of water and solutes across the cell- membrane
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  • Identify the layers of the skin: 1. Epidermis (on the top) the outer, non-sensitive, nonvascular layer of the skin 2. Dermis (in the middle) is the inner layer of skin, the dermis contains most of the skin's specialized cells and structures 3. Subcutaneous (on the bottom)- is below the dermis, filled with fat, blood vessels, and nerves
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  • Sebaceous glands: secrete sebum(oil) to lubricate the hair, prevent dying of the skin and hair Parts of hair: Hair follicle: is the cavity which contains the hair Hair root: is part of the hair that is embedded in the dermis which contains the cells called matrix, where mitosis takes place Hair shaft is visible part of the hair Nails: Nail root: Is deep in the dermis, new cells produce keratin (a strong protein)
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  • Functions of the Integumentry system: Protects against invasion of bacteria by serving as a barrier Perception in cooperation with the nervous system(72 feet of nerves) and the sense of touch including pain, heat, cold, and pressure The skin is capable of absorbing some material from its surface into glands (transdermal patch, lidocaine) The excretion consists primarily of eliminating water and salt plus waste products, fluids must be replaced to maintain a proper fluid balance The skin also combines the ultraviolet rays from sunlight with the skin to produce vitamin D
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  • Urticaria(hives) This is caused from a self-limiting reaction to allergens, from stress or viral infection Herpes simplex 1 is associated with lesions in the oral and nasal area Herpes simplex 2 is associated with genital lesions Malignant Melanoma: A neoplasm that develops from the pigment producing melanocytes Ulcer: a deep loss of the skin surface Acne Vulgaris: inflammation of the sebaceous glands and oversupply of sebum oil
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  • Athlete's foot: is a fungal infection of the skin(feet) Warts(verrucae) are caused by a family of virus known as human papillomavirus Pediculosis: Parasitic lice(head lice, body lice and pubic lice)
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  • Healing stages of inflammation Hemostasis: platelets cells act Inflammation: erythema, swelling and warmth often associated with pain Proliferation or Granulation: red tissue Remodeling or Maturation: interior finishing
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  • The primary purpose of the skeletal system is to: Support the body Bones are 20% water The rest is minerals(calcium, phosphorous, and magnesium) and organic matter(collagen, and protein fiber) The opening in the spongy bone are filled with: Red bone marrow Yellow marrow is: the marrow that functions as fat storage
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  • Cervical (neck)7 Thoracic (chest)12 Lumbar (back)5 Sacral(pelvic girdle) Cocccyx(tailbone)
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  • 12 pairs of ribs Humerus Xiphoid process radius/ulna carpal(8)/metacarpal(5),phalanges(finge rs) phalanges
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  • Ilium, Ischium, pubis
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  • Ankle bones 7 tarsals (ankle bones), 5 metatarsals (instep bones), and 14phalanges (toe bones).
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  • Simple(closed): complete bone break in which there is no involvement with the skin surface Compound(open): involves the skin Greenstick: Broke under pressure but will not break all the way through Impacted: broken ends are jammed into each other Communicated: bone fragments Impacted: broken ends are jammed into each other
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  • Spiral fracture: twisting force Colles fracutre: breaking and dislocating of the distal end of the radius
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  • Osteoarthritis: The breakdown of cartilage of the bones Rheumatoid Arthritis: a chronic systemic inflammation disease attacking joints and surrounding tissue(autoimmune) Gouty arthritis: results in severe joint pain, most often in the big toe, this is from deposits of uric acids and salts Osteoporosis: The thinning of bone tissue
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  • Scoliosis: spine is curved from side to side(lateral curve) Lordosis: curvature of the lumbar spine referred to as swayback Kyphosis: Bowing of the thoracic level of the back
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  • Herniated disc: intervertebral disk has been forced through its outer surface Carpal tunnel syndrome: This condition results from the compression of the median nerve at the Bursitis: painful inflammation of the bursa(sac located around a joint) Sprain: More commonly known as torn ligament, is damage to one or more
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  • Major functions of muscles: The 650 muscles in the body: support movement, help to maintain posture and circulate blood, protect organs Cardiac muscle: heart Skeletal muscle: most attached to bones Smooth muscle: in walls of hollow organs
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  • A tendon connects muscle to bone A ligament connects bone to bone
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  • Deltoid: a triangle muscle Gluteus:
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  • Rectus femoris Vastus lateralis Diaphram:
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  • Strains : are injuries that involve the stretching or tearing of a musculo-tendinous (muscle and tendon) Tip: sprain is torn ligament Atrophy: is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body. Tendonitis: This is a painful inflammation of the tendon Fibromyalgia Syndrome: This is a chronic musculoskeletal condition with chronic muscle pain, fatigue, sleep problems, and painful tender points or trigger points
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  • The circulatory system is composed of four main parts: 1. a pump the heart 2. the plumbing the blood vessels 3. the circulating fluid blood 4. the fluid system lymphatic system
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  • Systemic circulation: Oxygenated blood pumped through the body Pulmonary circulation: Deoxygenated blood pumped from the heart to the lungs
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  • Aorta
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  • Veins: jugular, inferior and superior vena cava,
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  • Artery for taking accurate blood pressure: Brachial Major arteries for taking pulse:
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  • Veins for venipuncture's:
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  • Functions of blood vessels: Arteries: Takes blood away from the heart Veins: Takes blood toward the heart Valves: prevent back flow Capillaries: Are the smallest of blood vessels. They serve to distribute oxygenated blood from arteries to the tissues of the body and to feed deoxygenated blood from the tissues back into the veins(single cell layer)
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  • Myocardial Infarction(MI): is a complication of coronary artery disease that results from occlusion(partial or complete) of the artery, causing myocardial tissue destruction Cerebrovascular Accident(CVA): a condition commonly known as a stroke, CVA is the sudden impairment of the flow of blood to the brain, interrupting the supply of oxygen and causing serious damage of brain tissue Embolism: an embolus is defined as foreign matter that enters and circulates in the blood stream
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  • Hypertension: A common condition in which the force of the blood against your artery walls is high enough that it may eventually cause health problems, such as heart disease Embolus(thrombus): A blockage that obstructs a blood vessel Arteriosclerosis: A degeneration and hardening of the walls of arteries Cardiac arrest: Is a sudden stop in effective blood circulation due to the failure of the heart
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  • Phlebitis: Inflammation of a vein Arrhythmia: Is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow Congestive heart failure(CHF): Condition of inadequate heart action with retention of tissue fluids Aneurysm: A widening, external dilation caused by the pressure of blood on weakened arterial walls
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  • The function of immunity: is primarily provided by specific cells and organs of the circulatory system(helps fight infection) Structures of the Immune system: Bone marrow: Thymus: lives in your chest, between your breast bone and your heart Lymph nodes: Spleen: Tonsils: Adenoids: Appendix:
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  • Tonsils: The lymph tissue of the tonsils intercept antigens invading the upper respiratory tract Lymph nodes: Filters pathogens for lymph Components of the immune system: T cells(wbc): directly attack invading organisms B cells: help T cells attack
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  • Antibodies: A protein substance carried by cells to counteract the effect of an antigen Antigen: Things that the immune system recognizes as non-self Vaccinations: active and passive immunity: Active is given in a booster to provide memory cells and antibodies for longer periods and passive is an injection given when already exposed to given temporary immunity to counter the immediate attack of pathogens(ex: rusty nail and tetanus)
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  • Influenza: an acute infection characterized by fever, cough, pain and URI HIV/AIDS: The virus invades the helper T cells and macrophages, hiding in their membranes Mono: Caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, affects the lymphocytes Chronic fatigue syndrome: The virus or bacteria enters the body and limits the immune system Autoimmune Disease: A condition wherein the persons antibodies react against their own normal tissue Lupus(autoimmune) This is a chronic inflammatory disease that occurs when your body's immune system attacks your own tissues and organs
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  • Structures of the respiratory system:
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  • Asthma- a chronic disorder characterized by swelling, inflammation, and constriction of the bronchi and bronchioles, indication of wheezing Tuberculosis(TB): Is a contagious bacterial infection that involves the lungs, but may spread to other organs Upper respiratory infection(URI) An illness caused by an acute infection of the respiratory tract Pneumonia: Is an acute infection of the principle tissues of the lungs, which may impair the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxides Respiratory Syncytial Virus(RSV): A virus that causes infections of the lungs and respiratory tract. Common in children
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  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease(COPD)- group of lung diseases(emphysema and chronic bronchitis)that block airflow as you Epistaxis(nosebleed)- Is the loss of blood through the nose Bronchitis: Inflammation of the mucus membranes of the bronchial tree Sudden Infant Death Syndrome(SIDS): This is a mysterious condition that kills apparently healthy infants
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  • Dyspnea: Difficult breathing(shortness of breath) Pursed lip breathing: is one of the simplest ways to control shortness of breath. It provides a quick and easy way to slow your pace of breathing, making each breath more effective Tachypnea: Rapid breathing Wheezing: Is a continuous, coarse, whistling sound produced in the respiratory airways
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  • The digestive process can be divided into four phases: 1. Ingestion: food is taken in 2. Digestion: preformed by all the organs of the digestive tract 3. Absorption: by the small intestines 4. Elimination: by the large intestines, colon, and rectum
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  • Structures of the Digestive System
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  • The salivary glands: excrete the fluid known as saliva The pancreas: secretes directly into the bloodstream a substance called insulin The liver: secretes bile(water and rbcs), this gives fecal material its yellow-brown color, its sole purpose is the concentration and storage of bile The gallbladder: When the body needs bile to digest food, the gallbladder releases bile to supplement that is being produced by the liver(storage of bile)
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  • Diverticultis: Occurs when one or more diverticula in your digestive tract become inflamed or infected Hemmorrhoids: Are swollen and inflamed veins in your anus and lower rectum. Celiac disease: Dilation of the small and large intestine Appendicitis: Is a condition characterized by inflammation of the appendix Hepatitis: Is a medical condition defined by the inflammation of the liver Ulcers: Occurs when part of the lining of the stomach or intestines becomes deeply eroded Hernia(know the different locations) a projection of an internal organ from its normal location Crohns disease: Is a type of inflammatory bowel disease that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract
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  • Structure of the Nervous System
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  • The nerve cell or neuron is the functioning unit in this system 1-The central nervous system(CNS): Which consists of the brain and the spinal cord 2-The peripheral nervous system: Which includes all the nerves of the CNS to every organ and the rest of the body
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  • 1. The sympathetic division: accelerates activity in the smooth, involuntary muscles of the bodys organs, "fight-or-flight" reaction to emergencies, increases heart rate and blood pressure 2. The parasympathetic division: reveres the action and slows down activity, rest and digest body's calming and relaxing functions
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  • Frontal lobe: Personality, reason, speech Parietal lobe: Taste, and skin sensations Occipital lobe: Sight Temporal lobe: Hearing and memory Cerebellum: Balance and coordination Midbrain: Relay station for impulses Brainstem(medulla and pons) Heart rate and respirations Hypothalamus: Endocrine functions, BP, and temperature regulation Pituitary gland: Secretes many hormones Cerebrospinal fluid(CSF): Watery cushion or shock absorber, provides nutrients
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  • Alzheimers Disease: This is a progressive, degenerative disease that attacks the brain, gradual memory loss, personality change Meningitis: Inflammation of the brain and spinal cord Headaches: Vascular, muscle contraction Epilepsy: Seizure with abnormal electrical impulses from neuron to brain Hemiplegia: Unilateral(one-side) Paraplegia Loss of motor function on the lower extremities Quadriplegia: Paralysis affecting all body systems Herpes zoster: An acute usually unilateral(on-side) inflammation of the dorsal root ganglion(known as shingles) Sciatica: pain that radiates along the path of the sciatic nerve
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  • The endocrine system: is made up of glands that produce and secrete hormones, chemical substances produced in the body that regulate the activity of cells or organs 1. The pituitary gland: growth and development 2. The thyroid: Prolactin, Adrenocorticotropic(ACTH) 3. The parathyroid(s) Produce calcium and vitamin D contents 4. The pancreas: secrete insulin 5. The adrenals: steroid hormones: cortisol 6. The ovaries: estrogen and progesterone 7. The testes: Testosterone 8. The thymus: T-cells that make up our immune system 9. The pineal body: melatonin(helps control your sleep and wake cycles
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  • Diabetes Mellitus: In type 1 diabetes, beta cells in the pancreas produce little or no insulin Type 2 diabetes is a lifelong (chronic) disease in which there are high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood Hypothyroidism: Disorder of the thyroid gland that is associated with too little thyroid hormone Hyperthyroidism: This is an immune system disorder that results in the overproduction of thyroid hormones Cushings disease: this is an endocrine disorder of the adrenal glands, produce to much cortisol Addisons disease: is a disorder that occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough of their hormones cortisol(lack if pigmentation, gums are black) 1.Growth hormone: insufficient production during childhood results in dwarfism, or overproduction, gigantism(from pituitary gland)
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  • Kidneys: Filer the blood and form urine Ureters: Passageway for urine from kidneys to the bladder Bladder: Temporary storage of urine Urethra: Passageway of urine to the outside of the body
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  • Kidney stones: Renal Calculi(kidney stones): are formed by chemicals in the urine, forming crystals that stick together Cystitis: Inflammation of the bladder Pyelonephritis(kidney infection): Inflammation of the kidneys, pelvis, and nephrons, this is the most common kidney infection Incontinence: this is the uncontrollable loss of urine Renal failure: this is a critical illness that results in the sudden cessation of the kidney function
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  • Each sex has special sex glands, or gonads, which produce sex cells(gametes) Female System: Ovum Male System: Spermatozoan
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  • Female Structures: Breasts: Lactation Ovaries: Production of eggs, estrogen, and progesterone Uterine tubes: Site of fertilization Uterus: Nourishment and protection of the fetus Vaginal: Birth canal
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  • Male structures: Penis: Sex organ Testes: Production of testosterone and sperm Scrotum: Muscular sac containing the testicles Epididymis, this propels sperm Vas deferens: Passageway of semen Prostate: preserves sperm Urethra: Passageway for urine and semen
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  • Ovarian Cyst: this is a sac of fluid on an ovary, it is usually nonmalignant and small Premenstrual syndrome(PMS): This condition of characteristics appears from 7 to 14 days before menstruation and usually subsides with the onset Menopause: The permanent cession of menstruation Endometriosis: The presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus, affecting the ovaries, ligaments, and peritoneal tissues Human Papillomavirus(HPV) Genital warts are soft growths on the skin and mucus membranes of the genitals Pelvic Inflammatory Disease(PID)- this is a acute or chronic infection of the reproductive tract, including the cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries
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  • Epididymitis: This is inflammation of the epididymis and is an uncommon infection, it may spread to the testicle Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate Benign prostatic hypertrophy: This is an enlargement of the prostate gland