• date post

21-Jul-2020
• Category

## Documents

• view

20

0

Embed Size (px)

### Transcript of 7.5 Logarithm Laws · PDF file 2020-05-08 · PreCalculus 12 2 Logarithm Laws: (for...

• PreCalculus 12

1

7.5 Logarithm Laws Investigate: - Use a calculator to approximate to 4 decimal places:

1. log 5 + log 6 = log 11 = log 30 =

log 11 + log 9 = log 20 = log 99 =

Or, in other words . . . .

log M + log N =

Why? We can prove this by:

Let logcM = x logcN = y

2. log 35 - log 5 = log 30 = log 7 =

log 48 - log 4 = log 44 = log 12 =

Or, in other words . . . .

log M - log N =

Once again . . .

1.48 1.04 1.48 1 996 1.30 1.996

I log.CM N

M Ck N CY

logfM N logfc a logfents se t y

log MN 109cm t tog n

0.845 1.478 O 845

1.079 I 644 1 079

I log F

logfF log log Ie 9

z y loyalty logon loosen

• PreCalculus 12

2

Logarithm Laws: (for any base ! > 0,≠ 1 ()* +, , > 0)

Example: - Write each expression in terms of individual logarithms of x, y, and z:

a) b)

c) d)

log logc cM N+ =

log logc cM N- =

log pc M =

5log xy z

3

log x y z

6 2

1 log

x 3

7log x

Product rule log Min

Quotient Rule log MT

Power Rule P log M

n logs 2 logs y logs z 10923 logy log zk

3 ogre logy I log 2

A log set

log I log si flog a 0

104 2 logs 2e

O 2109 2e

21096cal

• PreCalculus 12

3

Example: - Use the laws of logarithms to simplify and evaluate each expression.

a) b)

c)

Example: Write each expression as a single logarithm in simplest form. State the restrictions on the variable.

a) b)

6 6 6log 8 log 9 log 2+ - 7log 7 7

2 2 2 1

2log 12 log 6 log 27 3

æ ö- +ç ÷ è ø

2 7 7 7

5log log log

2 x

x x+ - ( ) ( )25 5log 2 2 log 2 3x x x- - + -

log 7 t log JI log log 7 t log F'T logo 3G I t E log I It I 127

o III n n210 12 log6 blog 27 log122 log6 log 27 3

log.LI2ar3 log o log s

logy I 131

109722 1 2 Flogic logs a log a Hogan logan logs ff loyal r logs ET log f n't y

log z E E

log at x o

• PreCalculus 12

4

Example: - The pH scale is used to measure the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. The pH of a solution is defined as pH = -log [H+], where [H+] is the hydrogen ion concentration in moles per litre (-./0 ). A neutral solution, such as pure water, has a pH of 7. Solutions with a pH of less than 7 are acidic and solutions with a pH of greater than 7 are basic or alkaline. The closer the pH is to 0, the more acidic the solution is. a) A common ingredient in cola drinks is phosphoric acid, the same ingredient found in many rust removers. A cola drink has a pH of 2.5. Milk has a pH of 6.6. How many times as acidic as milk is a cola drink? b) An apple is 5 times as acidic as a pear. If a pear has a pH of 3.8, then what is the pH of an apple?

Assignment: P. 441 # 4,5,7-9,12-14 MC1/2

0

Cola Milk Ht Cola pit log Ht pit log H H 2 s toyLite 6.6 log Hm

2 se ogLHe 66 1091hm 63,096K

I He I 0 Hm as acidic

take log of both sides Htapple g loglion log s 103 8Ht pear

10 2 s X tog lo log s.io 3 s

1 k log s 103 s

log to 10

K S 103.8

Iz 3 I