7130932 Structural Steelwork Eurocodes

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  • 8/2/2019 7130932 Structural Steelwork Eurocodes


    SSEDTA 2001 Last modified 22/09/05

    Structural Steelwork

    Eurocodes Development of

    A Trans-national Approach


    1 Introduction to composite construction of buildings

    2 Introduction to EC4

    3 Structural modelling and design

    4 Composite Slabs with Profiled Steel Sheeting

    5 Shear Connectors and Structural Analysis

    6 Simply supported beams

    7 Continuous Beams

    8 Composite Columns

    9 Composite joints

    10 Advanced composite floor systems

    11a Introduction to Structural Fire Engineering

    11b Fire Engineering Design of Composite Structures

  • 8/2/2019 7130932 Structural Steelwork Eurocodes


    SSEDTA 2001 Last modified 22/09/05

    Structural Steelwork

    Eurocodes Development of

    a Trans-National ApproachCourse: Eurocode 4

    Lecture 1: Introduction to compositeconstruction of buildings


    This lecture contains an introduction to the design and application of compositestructures. Also the advantages and fields of use for composite structures are


    Composite construction is popular for buildings and bridges as well because of thefollowing aspects:




    Service and building flexibility


    Some examples of existing buildings and construction methods are listed.



    Notes for Tutors:

    This material comprises one 60 minute lecture

    The tutor should update autonomy national changes of the Eurocode All additional modifications of the training packages are under responsibility of

    the tutor

  • 8/2/2019 7130932 Structural Steelwork Eurocodes


    SSEDTA 2001 Last modified 22/09/05


    To give an overview of possibilities and examples of composite structuresillustrated by examples of existing structures.


    [1] Gerald Huber: Non linear calculations of composite sections and semi-continuous joints

    Doctoral Thesis, Verlag Ernst & Sohn December1999

    [2] ECCS 83 European Convention for Constructional Steelwork: Design Guidefor Slim Floors with Built-in Beams

    [3] ECCS 87 European Convention for Constructional Steelwork: Design Manualfor composite Slabs

    [4] Tschemmernegg F: Lecture Mixed Building Technology in Buildings,University of Innsbruck

    [5] Helmut Bode: Euro Verbundbau, Konstruktion und Berechnung, 1998 [6] EN 1994-1-1Draft No.2: Design of composite steel and concrete structures,


    [7] COST C1 Control of the semirigid behaviour of civil engineering structuralconnections

    Proceedings of the international conference, Lige, 17 to 19 September 1998

    [8] Teaching Modules of A-MBT,1999/2000: Application Centre Mixed BuildingTechnology , Innsbruck -Austria,

    [9] ESDEP: Europisches Stahlbau - Lehrprogramm CD-Rom, 1996

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    1 General

    2 Aspects of use of composite structures

    2.1 Architectural

    2.2 Economics2.3 Functionality

    2.4 Service and building flexibility

    2.5 Assembly

    2.6 Comparison with other methods

    3 Construction methods

    3.1 Construction elements

    3.2 Slabs

    3.2.1 Reinforced concrete slabs

    3.2.2 Pre-stressed concrete slabs

    3.2.3 Profiled steel sheeting3.3 Beams

    3.4 Columns

    3.5 Joints

    4 Definitions and terminology4.1 Composite member4.2 Shear connection4.3 Composite beam4.4 Composite column4.5 Composite slab4.6 Composite frame

    4.7 Composite joint

    4.8 Shear-slip characteristic of a single connector4.9 Degree of shear connection (resistance)4.10 Shear interaction (stiffness)

    5 Examples5.1 Millennium Tower (Vienna Austria)5.2 Citibank Duisburg (Duisburg Germany)5.3 Parking deck DEZ (Innsbruck- Austria)

    6 Future developments

    7 Concluding summary

  • 8/2/2019 7130932 Structural Steelwork Eurocodes


    SSEDTA 2001 Last modified 22/09/05

  • 8/2/2019 7130932 Structural Steelwork Eurocodes


    SSEDTA 2001 Last modified 22/09/05

    GeneralThe most important and frequently encountered combination of construction materials is that of

    steel and concrete applied for buildings as well as bridges [1]. Although very

    different in nature, these two materials complement one another:

    Concrete is efficient in compression and steel in tension. Steel components are relatively thin and prone to buckling, concrete can

    restrain these against buckling.

    Concrete also gives protection against corrosion provides thermal insulationat high temperatures.

    Steel brings ductility into the structure

    The design of structures for buildings and bridges is mainly concerned with the

    provision and support of horizontal surfaces. In buildings, the floors are usually

    made of concrete, reinforced by steel to resist tension. As spans increase

    though, it is cheaper to support the slab, for example by beams, rather than to

    thicken the slab. In building structures the grid of beams is in turn supported by

    columns. Both the beams and columns can be conveniently constructed using

    structural steel sections, normally hot-rolled I- and H- shapes respectively. It

    used to be customary to design the bare steelwork to carry all the loads, but

    since the 1950s it has become increasingly common to connect the concrete

    slabs to the supporting beams by mechanical devices. These eliminate, or at

    least reduce, slip at the steel-concrete interface, so that the slab and the steel

    beam section act together as a composite unit, commonly termed a composite

    beam(Figure 1) [7].

    Figure 1 Non composite and composite beams

    In practice, interconnection is achieved by headed studs or other connectors

    which are welded or shot-fired to the structural steel and enclosed of concrete


    Composite members as conventional composite beams, composite columns andsteel-deck composite slabs have been in use for a considerable number of years.

    Simplifying assumptions for the interaction between the concrete slab and the

    steel beam helped to establish composite construction as an easy to handle

    extension of the bare steel construction. As the application of this technology

    proved its efficiency, large-scale research projects were started world-wide with

    the aim of further improvement.

    One research avenue concentrated on the interaction between the steel beam

    and the concrete slab. Obviously the advantages of a beam acting compositely

    are the higher stiffness and higher load resistance in comparison with its non-

    composite counterpart. In a first simplifying step the interaction has been

    assumed to be infinitely stiff preventing any slip between the two construction

    elements. As usual the most economic way is not the extreme one but a middle

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    course (not to mention that a fully-rigid interaction strictly cannot be realised in

    practice, it would require at least a very large number of shear connectors and

    hence high costs). In contrast, completely ignoring the strengthening effect of

    the concrete slab by a clear separation to the steel beam results in high material

    costs, again resulting in a lack of economy. Today numerous studies based on

    tests and numerical simulations provide a solid background to understand theso-called incomplete interaction between the steel and concrete sections within

    a composite beam.

    Aspects of use of composite structuresA universal way of design involves not only the optimisation of upper load

    resistance (strength), stiffness and ductility, but also inclusion of architectural,

    economical, manufactural and utilisation aspects of beams, slabs and columns.


    Designing composite structures offers a lot of architectural variations to combine different types

    of composite elements.

    In addition to reductions in the dimensions of the beams

    longer spans thinner slabs more slender columns

    offer flexibility and more generous opportunities for design.


    Enormous potential of cost saving results from smaller dimensions (higher

    stiffness results in less deflections, longer spans and less overall height) and

    quicker erection.

    The advantageous ratio of span width to height (l/h=35) can be beneficial: Reduction of height reduces the total height of the building

    Saving area of cladding

    Longer spans with the same height (compared to other methods ofconstruction)

    -->Column free rooms can be used more flexibly

    Additional storeys with the same total height of building

    Composite structures are easy to erect and have quicker times of erection

    --> saving of costs, earlier completion of the building,

    -->lower financing costs

    -->ready for use earlier thus increasing rental income


    Conventional steel structures use applied fire protection systems to insulate the steel from theheat of the fire. Modern steel and composite structures can provide fire resistance by usingprinciples of reinforced concrete structures in which the concrete protects the steel because ofits high mass and relatively low thermal conductivity.

    Just as composite slabs may resist fire, also composite beams can be used with

    unprotected flanges, but then the space between t