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  • Six Sigma Quality Engineering Week 7Analyze Phase

  • Chapter 6 Outline

    Process MapInputs characteristicsCause & Effect Fishbone Diagram (Minitab)C&E Matrix (Excel)Failure Mode & Effect Analysis (FMEA)Process CapablityCpkCpMinitab TutorialIn this session you will learn how to:Produce X and R chartsProduce histograms with normal curvesPerform a process capability analysis

  • Detailed Process Map Example

  • Characterising InputsInputs can be classified as one of three typesControllable (C)Things you can adjust or control during the processSpeeds, feeds, temperatures, pressures.

    Standard Operating Procedures (S)Things you always do (in procedures or common sense things)Cleaning, safety.

    Noise (N)Things you cannot control or don not want to control (too expensive or difficult)Ambient temperature, humidity, operator...

  • ExampleInputs (xs)Rotation speedTraverse speedTool typeTool sharpnessShaft materialShaft lengthMaterial removal per cutPart cleanlinessCoolant flowOperatorMaterial variationAmbient temperatureCoolant ageOutputs (Ys)DiameterTaperSurface finish

    CCCCCCCSCNNNS

  • The Eight Steps in Cause and Effect AnalysisDefine the EffectIdentify the Major CategoriesGenerate IdeasEvaluate IdeasVote for the Most Likely CausesRank the CausesVerify the ResultsRecommend Solutions

  • Cause & Effect (Fishbone Diagram)ObjectivesTo understand the benefits of Cause & Effect AnalysisTo understand how to construct a C & E Diagram

    AnalysisA method a work group can use to identify the possible causes of a problem A tool to identify the factors that contribute to a quality characteristic

  • Uses of C & E (Fishbone Diagram)Visual means for tracing a problem to its causesIdentifies all the possible causes of a problem and how they relate before deciding which ones to investigateC & E analysis is used as a starting point for investigating a problem

  • C&E (Fishbone Diagram)EffectThe problem or quality characteristicThe effect is the outcome of the factors that affect itEffect

  • Causes (Fishbone Diagram)All the factors that could affect the problem or the quality characteristicFive Major CategoriesMaterialsMethodsPeopleMachinesEnvironment

  • EffectPeopleMethodsMaterialMachineEnvironment

  • Cause and Effect (Matrix)BenefitGain new knowledge and perspectives by sharing ideas with othersHelps us understand our processesProvides a basis for actionWhenever a problem is discovered, using C&E analysis forces us to take a proactive stance by seeking out causes

  • 12345&6

    C&E Matrix

    Rating of Importance to Customer

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    Process StepProcess Input

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    Cause and Effect Matrix

    This table provides the initial input to the FMEA and experimentation. When each of the output variables (requirements) are not correct, that represents potential "EFFECTS". When each input variable is not correct, that represents "Failure Modes".

    1. List the process output variables 2. Rate each output on a 1-to-10 scale to importance to the customer3. List process input variables (from the process map)4. Rate each input's relationship to each output variable using a 0, 1, 3, 9 scale 5. Select the high ranking input variables to start the FMEA process; Determine how each selected input variable can "go wrong" and place that in the Failure Mode column of the FMEA.

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  • C&E MatrixInstructionsThis table provides the initial input to the FMEA and experimentation. When each of the output variables (requirements) are not correct, that represents potential "EFFECTS". When each input variable is not correct, that represents "Failure Modes".

    1. List the process output variables 2. Rate each output on a 1-to-10 scale to importance to the customer3. List process input variables (from the process map)4. Rate each input's relationship to each output variable using a 0, 1, 3, 9 scale 5. Select the high ranking input variables to start the FMEA process; Determine how each selected input variable can "go wrong" and place that in the Failure Mode column of the FMEA.

  • FMEAIt is an approach to:Identify potential failure for a product or a processEstimate risks that are associated with causesDetermine actions to reduce risksEvaluate product design validation planEvaluate process current control plan

  • FMEA typesThere are two types:Process: Will focus on Process InputsDesign: Will used to analyze product designs before they are released to production

  • The use of the FMEAImprove processes before failure occur (Proactive approach)Prioritize resources to ensure process improvement efforts are beneficial to customersTrack and document completion of projectsIt is a living document. It will be updated and reviewed all the time

  • Inputs & Outputs to FMEAInputsProcess MapC&E MatrixProcess HistoryProcess technical procedures

    OutputsActions list to prevent causesActions list to detect failure modesDocument history of actions taken

  • FMEA step-by-stepFor each process input, determine the ways in which the input can go wrong- the failure modes.What can go wrong with input

    Sheet1

    Process/ProductPotential Failure Modes and Effects Analysis(FMEA)

    Process or Product Name:Prepared by:

    Responsible:FMEA Date:(Orig.)(Rev.)Pageof

    Process Step/InputPotential Failure ModePotential Failure EffectsSEVPotential CausesOCCCurrent ControlsDETRPNActions RecommendedResponsibleActions TakenSEVOCCDETRPN

    PreventDetect

    What is the process step/input under investigation?In what ways does the input go wrong?What is the impact on the Output Variables (Customer Requirements) or internal requirements?How sever is the effect to the customer?What causes the input to go wrong?How often does cause of FM occur?How well can you detect cause or FM?Who is responsible for the recommended action?

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  • FMEA step-by-stepFor each failure mode associated with the inputs, determine the effects of the failures on the customer.What the effect on outputs?

    Sheet1

    Process/ProductPotential Failure Modes and Effects Analysis(FMEA)

    Process or Product Name:Prepared by:

    Responsible:FMEA Date:(Orig.)(Rev.)Pageof

    Process Step/InputPotential Failure ModePotential Failure EffectsSEVPotential CausesOCCCurrent ControlsDETRPNActions RecommendedResponsibleActions TakenSEVOCCDETRPN

    PreventDetect

    What is the process step/input under investigation?In what ways does the input go wrong?What is the impact on the Output Variables (Customer Requirements) or internal requirements?How sever is the effect to the customer?What causes the input to go wrong?How often does cause of FM occur?How well can you detect cause or FM?Who is responsible for the recommended action?

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  • FMEA step-by-stepIdentify potential causes of each failure mode.What are The causes?

    Sheet1

    Process/ProductPotential Failure Modes and Effects Analysis(FMEA)

    Process or Product Name:Prepared by:

    Responsible:FMEA Date:(Orig.)(Rev.)Pageof

    Process Step/InputPotential Failure ModePotential Failure EffectsSEVPotential CausesOCCCurrent ControlsDETRPNActions RecommendedResponsibleActions TakenSEVOCCDETRPN

    PreventDetect

    What is the process step/input under investigation?In what ways does the input go wrong?What is the impact on the Output Variables (Customer Requirements) or internal requirements?How sever is the effect to the customer?What causes the input to go wrong?How often does cause of FM occur?How well can you detect cause or FM?Who is responsible for the recommended action?

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  • FMEA step-by-stepList the current controls for each cause or failure mode (Prevent/Detect).How are these Found or prevented?

    Sheet1

    Process/ProductPotential Failure Modes and Effects Analysis(FMEA)

    Process or Product Name:Prepared by:

    Responsible:FMEA Date:(Orig.)(Rev.)Pageof

    Process Step/InputPotential Failure ModePotential Failure EffectsSEVPotential CausesOCCCurrent ControlsDETRPNActions RecommendedResponsibleActions TakenSEVOCCDETRPN

    PreventDetect

    What is the process step/input under investigation?In what ways does the input go wrong?What is the impact on the Output Va