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    Contaminants of Emerging Concern

    In Wastewater StreamsB. Stinson

    Acknowledgements Acknowledgements

    USGS: P.J. Philips, Ed Furlong, S. Zaugg, L. Barbar, P. Stackelberg

    M&E: Kathleen Esposito, Marija Peric, Alan Wong

    Plant Operators; Baltimore City Back River, DCWASA, New York City DEP, New Jersey DEP

    New York State DEC, USEPA

    USGS: P.J. Philips, Ed Furlong, S. Zaugg, L. Barbar, P. Stackelberg

    M&E: Kathleen Esposito, Marija Peric, Alan Wong

    Plant Operators; Baltimore City Back River, DCWASA, New York City DEP, New Jersey DEP

    New York State DEC, USEPA

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    Wide variety of applications in which they areused

    One of the key collection points in the water

    cycle is the Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Emphasis is Shifting to WastewaterTreatment Professionals

    Wide variety of applications in which they areused

    One of the key collection points in the water

    cycle is the Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Emphasis is Shifting to WastewaterTreatment Professionals

    Pathways to the EnvironmentPathways to the Environment

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    Beginning to see the emphasisshift to the discharger

    Beginning to see the emphasisshift to the discharger

    ECs in Treated Wastewater Discharges

    Linked to Impacts on Aquatic Life

    ECs in Treated Wastewater Discharges

    Linked to Impacts on Aquatic Life

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    Evidence of Reproductive Disruption inBoulder Creek white suckers

    3. Vitellogenin (estrogen-dependent

    female yolk protein): elevated inmales downstream of WWTP.

    1. Sex Ratio: skewed toward

    females at downstreamsites ~ 1:4 M:F

    2. Intersex: only at downstreamsites. (1 in 10)

    (Woodling et al., submitted 2005; Vajda et al., in prep)

    male female

    - Hormone levels elevated downstream of WWTP- Hormone levels elevated downstream of WWTP

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    Fate and Transport

    Total concentration(spearman = -.82; p = .0001)

    Total number

    (spearman = -.77; p = .0001)

    No Major Municipal WWTPs

    (Stackleberg et al., submitted 2004)

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    Stackelberg, P. E., et al., 2004. Persistence of pharmaceutical compounds andother organic wastewater contaminants in a conventional drinking-water treatmentplant. Science of the Total Environment, 329: 99113.

    Unplanned Indirect Potable Reuse

    Pharmaceutical/Antibiotic

    Flame retardant/Plasticizer

    Fragrance

    Pesticide

    Plant/Animal steroid

    Detergent metabolitePAHs

    Others

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    Occurrence in Finished Water

    3 to 22 compounds detected per sample Generally at low concentrations of 0.5 to 1 g/l 3 to 22 compounds detected per sample Generally at low concentrations of 0.5 to 1 g/l

    Pharmaceutical/Antibiotic

    Flame retardant/Plasticizer

    Fragrance

    Pesticide

    Plant/Animal steroid

    Detergent metabolite

    PAHs

    Others

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    Research Focus Nationally & InternationallyResearch Focus Nationally & Internationally

    Research underway to determine;

    Standard analytical detection techniques

    Contaminants of greatest public concern

    Environmental and human exposure level

    What are the most cost-effective treatmentand mitigation methods to protectenvironment and source waters?

    Research underway to determine;

    Standard analytical detection techniques

    Contaminants of greatest public concern

    Environmental and human exposure level

    What are the most cost-effective treatmentand mitigation methods to protectenvironment and source waters?

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    Lead Science Through

    Strategic Research Alliances

    Water & Wastewater Engineers

    Technology Specialists

    Municipal Relationships

    Environmental Planners

    WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY DNA Sequencing

    BNR

    SO. NEVADA WATER AUTHORITY

    Endocrine Disruptors

    NYC DEP BNR

    Biosolids

    Endocrine Disruptors

    UCONN

    BNR

    USGS

    Endocrine

    Disruptors

    ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY

    Aquifer Treatment

    NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY

    BNR

    Endocrine Disruptors

    UC AT DAVIS

    UV Disinfection

    Emerging

    Contaminants

    Water Re-Use

    UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

    Emerging Contaminants

    DC WASA

    BNR

    Biosolids

    Endocrine Disruptors

    UNIVERSITY OF DELFT,

    NETHERLANDS

    BNR

    DEGREMONT

    RESEARCH CENTER,

    Paris, France

    Biosolids

    Analytical Chemists

    Hydrologists

    Toxicologists

    Histologists Microbiologists

    Epidemiologists

    Entomologists

    Geologists

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    USGS / M&EUnique Research Partnership

    USGS / M&EUnique Research Partnership

    USGS / M&E Research Agenda

    Stage 1

    Focus on Wastewater Treatment Processes for Source Water Protection

    Baseline Evaluation of Occurrence of >90 Emerging Contaminants & Drugs

    Characterize occurrence & concentration of ECs in WWTP influent & effluents

    Removal capability of existing treatment processes

    Stage 2 Determine Effect of Advanced Technologies Indirect Potable Water Reuse

    USGS / M&E Research Agenda

    Stage 1

    Focus on Wastewater Treatment Processes for Source Water Protection Baseline Evaluation of Occurrence of >90 Emerging Contaminants & Drugs

    Characterize occurrence & concentration of ECs in WWTP influent & effluents

    Removal capability of existing treatment processes

    Stage 2 Determine Effect of Advanced Technologies Indirect Potable Water Reuse

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    Selected WWTP For Evaluation

    Variation in Wastewater Source

    Domestic

    Industrial

    Pharmaceutical

    Hospitals

    Range of Treatment Processes

    Activated Sludge Trickling Filter

    Tertiary Filtration

    Membrane

    Disinfection UV, Cl2

    , AOP

    Analytical Methods

    LC9003: LCMS, 23 Drugs

    SH1433: GCMS, 63 Chemical

    Hormone Analysis (underway) Estrogenic BioAssay

    USGS / M&EEmerging Contaminant Research Initiative

    USGS / M&EEmerging Contaminant Research Initiative

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    Influent

    Activated SludgeExtended Aeration Flocculation /Filtration

    Effluent

    Microfiltration UVOzonationChlorination

    ClarificationScreening / Settling / Equalization

    Wastewater Treatment PlantsWastewater Treatment Plants

    Primary Treatment Tertiary TreatmentBiological Process Disinfection

    Trickling Filter

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    Summary Statistics

    55 compounds detected (44 frequently)

    Influent concentrations: 100 2,000 g/L

    Effluent concentrations: 5 - 1,800 g/L

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    General Overview of Plant Performance:All Compounds

    Treatment Process had a significant impact on removals

    More than 60% of compounds were well removed by

    activated sludge plants

    Trickling filter plant less effective

    Treatment Process had a significant impact on removals

    More than 60% of compounds were well removed by

    activated sludge plants

    Trickling filter plant less effective

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    A B C D

    Wastewater Treatment Plant

    %o

    fCompoundsWith>95%

    Reduction

    Activated Sludge WWTPs

    Trickling Filter

    WWTPs

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    Plant Performance: Representative Compounds

    A B C D

    Removals varied according to compound

    Impact of cocktail of chemicals

    Continuous low level exposure = / > impact than acute high level exposure

    Removals varied according to compound

    Impact of cocktail of chemicals

    Continuous low level exposure = / > impact than acute high level exposure

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    Plants Vary In Ability To Reduce Drugs

    19 of 23 compounds detected at each plant

    Large variation in the source concentration

    Removals at wastewater treatment plants varied

    13 Compounds detected in effluent or receiving stream

    Some concentrations exceed 1 g/L in stream

    19 of 23 compounds detected at each plant

    Large variation in the source concentration

    Removals at wastewater treatment plants varied

    13 Compounds detected in effluent or receiving stream

    Some concentrations exceed 1 g/L in stream

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    Variability in Influent Concentrations

    Impact of Industrial & Pharmaceutical Loads can be significant

    Pre-treatment may be necessary at select Plants

    Impact of Industrial & Pharmaceutical Loads can be significant

    Pre-treatment may be necessary at select Plants

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    Influent Effluent

    1 2 3 4

    Extended AerationActivated Sludge

    Deep BedSand Filtration

    Microfiltration

    Clarification

    Screening / Set