6. late classical, hellenistic, late hellenistic, end of ancient greece period

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  1. 1. Greek Art 6 Late Classical Period, Hellenistic Period, Late Hellenistic Period, End of the Ancient Greece Period Credit to Gardners Art Through The Ages 12th Ed.
  2. 2. Late Classical Period in Art Sculpture starts to become more realistic and less idealistic as the Greeks are disillusioned after the Peloponnesian War Gods become more humanized (and less perfect) However, a style of dreamy and beautiful divine sculptures was created: Deliberately smooth, creating soft shadows Praxiteles Skopas of Paros Lysippos of Sikyon: so renowned that Alexander the Great selected him to create his official portrait! The original was lost, and it is difficult to know which portrait is most faithful to Lysipposs original New canon of proportions: bodies were more slender, head = 1/8 of body height instead of 1/7
  3. 3. Praxiteles: Aphrodite of Knidos, 350- 340 BCE, whole body is 68
  4. 4. Praxiteles: Hermes and the Infant Dionysos, from the Temple of Hera, Olympia, Greece, 340 BCE, whole body is 71
  5. 5. Lysippos, Apoxyomenos (Scraper, athlete scraping oil from his body), 330 BCE, whole body is 69
  6. 6. Lysippos, Weary Herakles (Farnese Herakles), 320 BCE, whole body is 105
  7. 7. Macedonian Pebble Mosaics Uncovered at Pella on floors in the homes of the wealthy Made from pebbles from beaches and riverbanks, set into a thick coat of cement
  8. 8. Pella
  9. 9. Stag Hunt Mosaic, by Gnosis, 300 BCE, Pella, h. 102 It is believed the house owner wanted guests to know this was made by a professional, not an imitator, and hence we have the first known signature of a mosaicist: Gnosis made it Light and dark suggest volume Greek term for shading = skiagraphia shadow painting
  10. 10. Philoxenos of Eretria, Battle of Issus (Alexander Mosaic) from the House of the Faun, 310 BCE, Roman Copy: Pompeii, Italy, late 2nd or early 1st Century BCE, Tessera Mosaic, 810 x 169 Alexander humiliates Darius (Persian King) in Battle of Issus in southeastern Turkey Darius fled the battlefield in his chariot in humiliating defeat Tesserae = tiny stones or pieces of glass cut to the desired size or shape (NOT PEBBLES) Made by Philoxenos of Eretria for King Cassander, one of Alexanders successors Men, animals, and weapons cast shadows on the ground Psychological intensity Alexander is driving his spear through one of Darius Dariuss immortal guards
  11. 11. Late Classical Architecture 5 of the 7 Wonders of the Ancient World were Greek, but only one of the Greek wonders was a tomb Built at Halikarnassos for Mausolos, ruler of Caria in Asia Minor Mausoloss wife, Artemisia had the tomb built, and hired the best sculptors of the day to decorate it (including Skopas) Comparable to the Pyramids at Giza Dismantled long ago, but believed to be multistory with a high stepped podium, an Ionic colonnade, and a pyramidal roof capped by a colossal marble group of Mausolos in a 4-horse chariot 140 ft. tall Where we get the term Mausoleum for a grandiose funerary monument
  12. 12. Halikarnassos
  13. 13. Reconstruction of the Mausoleum at Halikarnassos
  14. 14. Greek Theaters Greek drama was closely associated with religious rites and was not pure entertainment Performed only once, not repeatedly, during sacred festivals Finest theater in Greece = Epidauros Constructed shortly after Alexander the Great was born, 350 BCE Architect: Polykleitos the Younger Still used today for ancient Greek dramas!
  15. 15. Epidauros
  16. 16. Greek Theater at Epidauros
  17. 17. Classical Period 480-323 BCE Alexander the Great defeats Persian army at Granicus river in Anatolia 334 BCE Alexander the Great defeats Persians at Issus 333 BCE Alexander invades Egypt 331 BCE City of Alexandria founded in Egypt Alexander defeats Persians at Gaugamela Alexander continues conquests to Afghanistan and India after marrying Roxane (Princess of Bactria) 327 BCE
  18. 18. Bactria
  19. 19. Hellenistic Period 323-146 BCE Death of Alexander the Great 323 BCE Death of Aristotle 322 BCE Ptolemy I Became ruler of Egypt Macedonian general under Alexander the Great Founds museum/library in Alexandria 300 BCE A place to store cultural information A place for the mothers and fathers of math, science, geography and medicine to study and teach
  20. 20. Ptolemy I
  21. 21. Hellenistic Period 323-146 BCE First Macedonian War (214-204) Rome defeats Philip V of Macedon Second Macedonian War (200-196) Roman victory of Flamininus Third Macedonian War (172-168/7) Roman Lucius Aemelius Paulus of Rome defeats Perseus of Macedon at Pydna. Macedonia divided into four republics, ruled by Rome
  22. 22. Hellenistic Architecture and Sculpture Great scale Theatrical element of surprise Willing to break the rules of canonical temple design Statues interact with their environment and appear as living, breathing, and intensely emotive human or divine presences Rejected Classical idealism Not only portrayed what people looked like, but tried to capture the essence of their personalities Also chose to portray people from lower social orders: Shepherds, fishermen, beggars
  23. 23. Temple of Apollo at Didyma (Turkey) Started in 313 BCE, but construction continued on and off for 500 years! And STILL it was never completed! Architects: Paionios of Ephesos and Daphnis of Miletos Had no pediments and no roof (it was hypaethral, open to the sky) Entrance to the temples cella (main room) was elevated 5 ft. off the ground so that it couldnt be entered Acted as a stage for the oracle of Apollo for those assembled in front of the temple
  24. 24. Temple of Apollo at Didyma (Turkey)
  25. 25. Temple of Apollo at Didyma (Turkey) Reconstruction
  26. 26. Temple of Apollo at Didyma (Turkey) What it looks like today
  27. 27. Pergamon: A Hellenistic Acropolis Founded by Philetairos, ruled by King Attalos II Western and Southern Turkey Acropolis here: royal palace, arsenal (collection of weapons/military equipment), barracks (housing for soldiers), library, theater, agora (marketplace), Altar to Zeus and also for Athena After the death of Pergamons last king, Attalos III in 133 BCEcity under Roman control
  28. 28. Pergamon
  29. 29. Altar of Zeus at Pergamon, Turkey 175 BCE Most famous of all Hellenistic sculpture All around the altars platform was a 400 ft. frieze 100 larger than life-size figures Portrays the battle of Zeus and the gods against the giants for control of the world (as a metaphor for King Attalos Is victory over the Gauls in Asia Minor) Emotional intensity: battle is raging, swirling draperies, vivid depictions of suffering and death Deep carving creates dark shadows
  30. 30. Altar of Zeus, Pergamon, Turkey, 175 BCE, Reconstruction
  31. 31. Athena battling Alkyoneos (a giant) Altar of Zeus, Pergamon, Turkey, 175 BCE, Marble, whole image is 76
  32. 32. Nike of Samothrace, 190 BCE Sanctuary of the Great Gods on the island of Samothrace Nike has just alighted on a Greek warship Her missing right arm was once raised high to crown the naval victor The wings appear to be beating The wind sweeps her drapery Was originally displayed in in the upper basin of a 2- tiered fountain In the lower basin there were large boulders Fountains flowing water created the illusion of rushing waves dashing up against the prow of the ship
  33. 33. Nike of Samothrace, Marble, H. 81
  34. 34. Nike of Samothrace, Marble, H. 81
  35. 35. Nike of Samothrace, Marble, H. 81
  36. 36. Late Hellenistic Period (Greco-Roman) 146-30 BCE Hellenistic Art under Roman Patronage (Rome rules Greece at this point) Greece is considered the inventor of the European artistic spirit, and Rome is credited with amplifying it through the ages Trojan priest Laocon and his sons by Athanadoros, Hagesandros, and Polydoros of Rhodes Were strangled by sea serpents while sacrificing at an altar The gods who favored the Greeks during the Trojan War had sent the serpents to punish him for trying to warn his countrymen about the danger of bringing the Greeks wooden horse into the walls of their city Currently at the Vatican Was unearthed in 1506 among the remains of the palace of the emperor Titus (79-81 CE), this excavation was done in the presence of Michelangelo!
  37. 37. Laocon and his sons, by Athanadoros, Hagesandros, and Polydoros of Rhodes, Rome, Italy (Vatican), early 1st century CE, Marble, Whole statue is 710 tall Serpent
  38. 38. Late Hellenistic Period (Greco-Roman) 146-30 BCE Roman Invasion of Greece (Macedonia and Greece were not considered united) Rome rules Greece henceforth Battle of Actium 31 BCE Mark Antony was fighting for Rome, and controlling the eastern Roman provinces, when he met Cleopatra, ruler of Egypt as of 51 BCE Cleopatra had seduced Julius Caesar in the past and had a child with him, and sought to seduce Mark Antony as well, and was successful Octavian (Julius Caesars great nephew/heir, later known as Augustus), declared war on Egypt (and therefore Mark Antony), and won Mark Antony and Cleopatra each committed suicide in 30 BCE, ending the Ancient Greece period Augustus was one of the most successful Roman emperors; he ruled a peaceful and expanding empire until he died at age 75 in 14 AD
  39. 39. Macedonia
  40. 40. Julius Caesar
  41. 41. Octavian (Augustus)
  42. 42. Mark Antony
  43. 43. Cleopatra