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Transcript of 540 current issues demanding responses

  • 1. Presented by LorenzaToussaint

2. Crucial Curriculum Issues

  • Development of thinking
  • Competition in education with other nations
  • Vocational Education
  • Moral Education
  • School Safety

3. Curriculum for Thinking

  • In 1894 The Committee of Ten
  • -held that the chief purpose of
  • education was to train the mind
  • - compromised that all the principal subjects might
  • accomplish this purpose of consecutively taught so
  • that they would enhance the process of
  • observation, memory, expression, and reasoning.

4. The Focus of a Thinking Curriculum

  • Contrast in Goals for Thinking
  • -a curriculum where students explore
  • issues affecting their lives and the
  • world.
  • Social Reconstructionists Goals of Thinking
  • -favor critical thinking
  • -Blooms Taxonomy (logical thinking and
  • reasoning


  • Humanistic Goals for Thinking
  • -value creative thinking
  • -various exercises to explore the unfamiliar and
  • creating something new
  • - fluency(through such techniques as
  • brainstorming)
  • - flexibility(changing the focus of thought)
  • - elaborating( adding new material to existing
  • ideas
  • - risk taking(trying out a new idea)

Contd 6. Contd

  • Academicians Goals for Thinking
  • -prize the paradigmatic or logico-
  • scientific mode of thinking
  • -based on categorization, conceptualization and the
  • operations for establishing and relating categories.
  • -3 kinds of knowledge are taught:
  • 1.Curriculum for Teaching Basic Operations
  • -classifying, generalizing, deducing

7. Contd

  • 2.Curriculum for Teaching Problem Solving
  • -students learn the heuristics (helping to learn) of
  • diagrammingbreaking a problem into sub problems,
  • findinganalogous problemsand working backwards.
  • 3.Domain-Specific Knowledge
  • -current focusis noton the acquisition and coverage of
  • subject matter but on how the subject can be taught so that
  • students think about thecontent in fresh ways and acquire
  • intellectual tools that can be useful in other contexts.

8. Curriculum Competition:An International Comparison

  • See Table 11.1 Results of the Trends in InternationalMathematics and Science Study (TIMSS)
  • - U. S. ranked 24 thamong nations whose 18-24 year olds are
  • earning advanced science or engineering degrees.
  • - Poor performance of U. S. students on conceptual tasks may
  • reflect U. S. teachers traditional practice of emphasizing
  • procedures rather than connecting concepts to acting.
  • -Is the curriculum in the U. S. schools lagging behind those in other
  • countries?If so, why and what should be done about it?

9. Contd

  • PISA (Program for International Studies Assessment, 2000) results indicatedfive factors that are necessary for success in school learning and continued study and learning:
  • - using strategies for learning
  • - enjoying reading
  • - taking responsibility for reaching both goals set
  • by teachers and ones own goals.
  • - believing in ones ability to learn and achieve.
  • - knowing situations where cooperative or
  • competitive learning is more appropriate.

10. Vocational Education

  • Education through work
  • - subjects are coordinated with work-related
  • experiences (Ex. Cooperative Education)
  • Education about work
  • - examine the world of workbecome aware of
  • career choices.
  • Education for work
  • - prepared for entry into a family of occupations for
  • specific careers.

11. Contd

  • 4 issues face curriculum planners:
  • 1.Purpose should it aim at broad intellectual
  • development and guidance.
  • 2.Access - should it open to the slow as well as to the
  • gifted?
  • 3.Content - how well does it match the present and
  • future needs of the economy?
  • 4.Organization - should it be restructured in order to
  • close the gap between the vocational programs of
  • the school and the requirements of work?

12. Contrasting Purposes for Vocational Education

  • Early Rationale
  • - offeredmanual trainingas complementary to
  • academic studies and necessary for the balanced education for
  • all students.It was a more meaningful way of learning by doing.
  • Current Thinking about Purposes of Vocational Education
  • - rest on 3 arguments:
  • -national interest(pipeline programs with foundation
  • technical training and academic courses in high school and
  • advanced courses at the college level, with work-related
  • experiences.

13. Contd

  • -equity(help the young, refugees, and the hard-to-employ to
  • find a place in the economy)
  • -human development(underscores the intrinsic value of work.
  • Students gain a sense of how things work televisions, cars,
  • businesses.
  • Content of Vocational Education
  • Daniel Hull and Leno Pedrotti suggested a means of designing a curriculum for high tech occupations:
  • 1.a common core consisting of basic units in mathematics, the
  • physical sciences, communications, and human relations.

14. Contd

  • 2.a technical core of units in electricity, electronics,
  • mechanics, thermics, computers, and fluids.
  • 3.a sequence on specialization in lasers or electro-
  • optics, instrumentation and control, robotics, and
  • microelectronics.

15. Trends in Vocational Education

  • a progressive innovation that introduces broad content.
  • dictated by economic rationalism aimed at sorting and ranking students as productive workers.
  • Congress has influenced curriculum by demanding that recipients of vocational education funds to teach job-specific skills and assist students from low-income families to go straight from high school into the job market.

16. Moral Education

  • Phenixs Basic Questions in Moral Education
  • - values, standards, or norms, and the sources and justification
  • for these norms.
  • 4 approaches:
  • 1.TheNihilisticPosition a denial that there are any standards of
  • right or wrong.
  • 2.TheAutonomicPosition view that norms or values are
  • defined by eachperson is the
  • cornerstone of the autonomic
  • position.

17. Contd

  • 3.TheHeteronomicPosition asserts that known standards and
  • values can be taught and can
  • provide clear norms of judgment
  • for human conduct.
  • 4.TheTelenomicPosition holds that morality is grounded on a
  • comprehensive purpose.

18. Character Education

  • During the 1960s through early 1980s, values clarification dominated moral education and the teaching of ethics.
  • Values clarificationists think that the exploration of personal preferences helps people to:
  • -be more purposeful because they must rank their priorities
  • -be more productive because they analyze where their
  • activities are taking them
  • -be more critical because they learn to see through the
  • foolishness of others
  • -be better able to handle relations with other.

19. School Safety

  • Reece L. Peterson and Russell Skiba stress the importance of improving school climates to create safe schools by:
  • 1.parent and community involvement
  • 2.character education
  • 3.violence-prevention and conflict-resolution
  • curricula
  • 4.peer mediation
  • 5.bullying prevention.