51088910 da-dang-sinh-hoc-5977

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Transcript of 51088910 da-dang-sinh-hoc-5977

  • 1. MC LCMC LC.............................................................................................2LI NI U......................................................................................6PHN I: A DNG DI TRUYN.......................................................9CHNG 1: GEN V T BIN GEN.............................................91. TNG QUAN V GEN...........................................................................................91.1. nh ngha gen.............................................................................................................91.2. Cu trc ca Gen........................................................................................................101.3. Chc nng ca Gen....................................................................................................132. T BIN GEN....................................................................................................142.1. Khi nim t bin v t bin gen...........................................................................142.2.Cc dng t bin gen thng gp..............................................................................142.3.Nguyn nhn pht sinh t bin gen...........................................................................152.4. Hu qu ca t bin gen...........................................................................................162.5. S biu hin ca t bin gen ...................................................................................162.6. ngha ca t bin gen............................................................................................173. NG DNG CA CNG NGH GEN...............................................................183.1.Cch tin hnh k thut gen........................................................................................193.2. To ra cc chng vi sinh vt mi...............................................................................193.3. Mt s thnh tu chn ging Vit Nam..................................................................21CHNG II: A DNG GEN..........................................................231.A DNG GEN......................................................................................................231.1. nh ngha..................................................................................................................241.2. Tnh a dng mc ca cc nhm sinh vt..........................................................252. A DNG GEN TRONG NNG NGHIP VIT NAM...............................282.1. Ngun gen ging cy trng, vt nui.........................................................................282.2. c trng a dng ca ngun gen..............................................................................293. TNH TRNG SUY THOI A DNG GEN....................................................30CHNG III: BO TN GEN........................................................311. CC PHNG THC BO TN NGUN GEN.............................................321.1. Bo tn nguyn v (In situ)........................................................................................32

2. a dng sinh hc1.2. Bo tn chuyn v (Ex situ)........................................................................................332. CC BIN PHP BO TN NGUN GEN......................................................342.1. Bo tn ngun gen trong trang tri............................................................................342.2. Ngn hng gen ht ging...........................................................................................352.3. Ngn hng gen ng rung........................................................................................372.4. Ngn hng gen invitro................................................................................................393. BO TN GEN NG VT HOANG D VIT NAM ...............................40PHN II: A DNG LOI...............................................................42CHNG I. LOI V A DNG LOI.........................................421. NH NGHA LOI V A DNG LOI........................................................422. A DNG LOI TRN TH GII V VIT NAM....................................433. CC YU T NH HNG N A DNG LOI......................................47CHNG II. CC NGUYN NHN GY SUY GIM A DNGLOI...................................................................................................491. NGUYN NHN T NHIN...............................................................................502. NGUYN NHN T CON NGI ...................................................................512.1. S dng khng bn vng cc ngun ti nguyn sinh vt...........................................512.2. S du nhp cc loi ngoi lai.....................................................................................542.3. Xy dng c bn lm mt a dng sinh hc..............................................................552.4. Chin tranh.................................................................................................................562.5. nhim mi trng...................................................................................................572.6. Tng dn s ...............................................................................................................602.7. Di dn v tp qun du canh du c..............................................................................612.8. S ngho i..............................................................................................................622.9. Mu thun trong cc chnh sch.................................................................................62CHNG III. E DO LOI V BO TN.................................631. SCH IUCN V S TUYT CHNG.........................................................63 1.1. Sch IUCN...........................................................................................................631.2. S tuyt chng (extinction)........................................................................................662. BO TN LOI....................................................................................................712.1. V sao phi bo tn loi?............................................................................................712.2. Cc cp bo tn loi..............................................................................................732.3. Cng c bo tn loi..................................................................................................742.4. Bo tn loi Vit Nam............................................................................................76PHN III. A DNG H SINH THI.............................................783 3. a dng sinh hcCHNG I : H SINH THI............................................................781. CC KHI NIM.................................................................................................781.1. Khi nim h sinh thi...............................................................................................781.2. Cc khi nim lin quan.............................................................................................792. CU TRC CA H SINH THI......................................................................802.1. Cu trc h sinh thi chia theo thnh phn................................................................802.2. Cu trc h sinh thi chia theo chc nng..................................................................823. C TRNG CA H SINH THI...................................................................823.1. Tnh cn bng ca h sinh thi cn bng sinh thi (ecological stability)................823.2. Dng nng lng trong h sinh thi...........................................................................833.3. Dng vt cht ca h sinh thi, chu trnh sinh a ho...............................................844. CHC NNG CA H SINH THI...................................................................844.1. Chc nng sinh thi v mi trng............................................................................844.2. Chc nng sn xut gi tr kinh t...........................................................................864.3. Chc nng x hi v nhn vn...................................................................................884.4. Cc chc nng khc...................................................................................................895. DIN TH SINH THI........................................................................................905.1. Khi nim din th sinh thi......................................................................................905.2. Nguyn nhn dn n din th sinh thi ..................................................................915.3. Cc loi din th ........................................................................................................915.4. Tm quan trng thc t ca vic nghin cu din th. .............................................936. CC KIU H SINH THI CHNH...................................................................936.1. Cc h sinh thi trn cn............................................................................................936.2. Cc h sinh thi di nc.........................................................................................97CHNG II : A DNG H SINH THI.....................................1021. TNG QUAN V A DNG H SINH THI ................................................1021.1. a dng h sinh thi.................................................................................................1021.2. Nguyn tc nh gi a dng h sinh thi................................................................1022.CH S A DNG H SINH THI...................................................................1032.1. Tng ch s a dng (Cng thc Shannon)..............................................................1032.2. Ch s bnh qun......................................................................................................1042.3. Cc ch s khc..................................................................