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4.2: Parts of a Eukaryotic Cell

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  • 1. Parts of aEukaryoticCell

2. Cell Theory

  • All living thingsare made up of cells.
  • Cells are thesmallestworking units ofall living things.
  • There aretwotypes of cell:
    • Prokaryotic
    • Eukaryotic

3. Prokaryotic

  • One -celled
  • Nonucleus
  • DNA looks like atwisted rubber band
  • Nomembrane-covered organelles
  • Allhave acell walloutside the cell membrane
  • Ex:Bacteria

4.

  • Larger
  • Have anucleus
  • Havemembrane-coveredorganelles
  • Some(ex: plants) have acell wall

Eukaryotic Plant Animal 5. Two Types of Eukaryotic Cells

  • Animal cells
  • Plant cells

6. Typical Animal Cell 7. Typical Plant Cell 8. Cell Parts Organelles 9. Organelles

  • little organs
  • Havespecific jobsthat help keep the cell alive
  • Like the organs in your body have specific jobs to help keep you alive

10. Surrounding the Cell 11. Cell Wall

  • Stiff outer layer thatsupports&protectsthe cell
  • All plantcells have a cellwall that is made of asugar called cellulose
  • ( All prokaryoticcells, likebacteria, also havecell walls)
  • Animalcells donothavecell walls

12. Cell Membrane

  • Surrounds&protectsthe cell ( insideof the cell wall on plants, fungi, and prokaryotes)
  • Every cellhas a cell membrane
  • Made ofproteins andlipidsthatcontrol themove-mentof materialsin & out of the cell
  • Allowsnutrients and waterin
  • Letswastegoout

13. Inside the Cell 14. Proteins

  • Control thechemical reactionsin the cell
  • Provide cells withstructure
  • The messages of how to make proteins are given by theDNA

Not THIS kind of protein! 15. Cytoskeleton

  • A web ofproteinsinside the cell thatanchorsthe organelles
  • Acts as askeleton&amuscle
  • Helps the cell keepitsshape
  • Also helps other cells,like bacteria,move

16. Nucleus

  • Onlyineukaryoticcells
  • Large& in thecenter
  • Contains genetic material -DNA
  • Directscell activities
  • Covered bytwo membraneswhich allow materials to go in and out

17. Ribosomes

  • Smallestorganelles in cell
  • Each cell containsthousands
  • Makesprotein
  • Foundfloatingaround inside cell
  • Orattachedto membranes or organelles
  • Unlike most organelles, ribosomes arenotcovered by a membrane

-> 18. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

  • Membranes with manyfolds
  • Makeslipids&proteins
  • Part of the cellsdeliverysystem : folds havepassageways = movematerials around cell
  • Twotypes:
    • SmoothER:noribosomes, makeslipids , breaks down materials that can harm the cell
    • RoughER:ribosomesattached, makesproteinsto be delivered to other parts of the cell

19. Mitochondria

  • Mainpower source of the cell
  • Makeenergybybreaking downsugar
  • Energy is stored inmolecule calledATP
  • The cell uses the ATPto dowork
  • Has itsown DNAthat isdifferentfrom the cells DNA

20. Chloroplasts

  • Usually found inplantandalgaecells
  • Contain greenchlorophyll(traps the energy of sunlight to make sugarmake food)
  • Wherephotosynthesistakes place (Sun + CO2 + H2OO2 + sugar)

21. Vesicles

  • A smallenvelopethat surrounds material to bemovedfrom one part of a cell to another
  • Made from thecell membrane
  • Or from theGolgi complex. . .

22. Golgi Complex

  • Packages & delivers materialswithinandoutof the cell
  • The Post Office of the cell

23. The Post Office

  • TheERdelivers materials to the Golgi complex
  • TheGolgi complexcan change these so that they can do different jobs
  • Theyre enclosed inpieces of the Golgismembrane
  • The membrane pinchesoff to makevesicles
  • The vesicles move thematerials toother parts of the cell oroutof the cell

24. Lysosomes

  • Responsible fordigestion
    • Destroyworn-out ordamaged organelles
    • Get ridof wastes
    • Protectcell fromharmful products
  • Material is enclosedin a vesicle
  • Lysosome bumps intovesicle and poursenzymes into it (breaks down whats inside of it)

25. Vacuoles

  • A type of vesicle
  • Also help withdigestion(like Lysosomes)
  • In plants: large vacuole in center storewater , which helps plants keep their shape (plantswiltwhen vacoules lose water)