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NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev.2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239-18
REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE
OMB NO. 0704-0188
Public Reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comment regarding this burden estimates or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188,) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY ( Leave Blank)
2. REPORT DATE 08/15/04
3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Final Progress 15 May 01 14 May 04
4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Autoignition and Burning Speeds of JP-8 Fuel at High Temperatures and Pressures
5. FUNDING NUMBERS DAAD19-01-1-0587
6. AUTHOR(S) Mohamad Metghalchi
7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Northeastern University 360 Huntington Ave., Boston, MA 02115
8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER DAAD19-01-1-0587 / 560280 / 3
9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U. S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211
10. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 41603.1-EG
11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy or decision, unless so designated by other documentation. 12 a. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited.
12 b. DISTRIBUTION CODE .
13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) Experimental facilities have been designed and built for liquid injection lines in both spherical and cylindrical vessels. Heating equipments including vessel band heaters and liquid line heater along with pressure transducer and thermocouples have been added to cylindrical vessel. Burning speed of JP-8 air mixtures was measured in a range of temperature and pressure. Flame pictures have been taken in the cylindrical vessel with end glasses using a high speed CCD camera. The reults are presented in this report.
14. SUBJECT TERMS Combustion Autoignition
15. NUMBER OF PAGES 20
16. PRICE CODE
17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OR REPORT
18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION ON THIS PAGE
19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF ABSTRACT
20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT
Final Progress Report
Autoignition and Burning Speeds of JP-8 Fuel at High
Temperatures and Pressures
U. S. Army Research Office
ATT: AMSRL-RO-S (IPR)
P. O. Box 12211
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211
Grant No. DAAD19-01-1-0587
August 25, 2004
1. M. Matlo, F. Parsinejad and H. Metghalchi, Schlieren and shadowgraph
images of transient expanding spherical thin flames, Proceedings of IMECE2002: ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 2002.
F. Rahim, M. Metghalchi, J. Keck, Development of Reaction Mechanism and Measurement of Burning Speeds of Methane/Oxidizer/Diluent Mixtures at Low Temperatures and High Pressures, Western States Combustion Institute, La Jolla, California, March 2002.
Farzan Parsinejad and Mohamad Metghalchi, A Mathematical Model for Schlieren and Shadowgraph Images of Transient Expanding Spherical Thin Flames, ASME International Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 126-2 (2004), 241-247.
Sergio Ugarte, Mohamad Metghalchi, James C. Keck, Methane Oxidation Modeling Using the Rate-Controlled Constrained-Equilibrium Method, Proceedings of the Fall technical meeting of the US Eastern Section of The Combustion Institute, Penn State, Oct., 2003.
Sergio Ugarte, Mohamad Metghalchi, James C. Keck, Methanol Oxidation
Induction Times Using the Rate-Controlled Constrained-Equilibrium Method, Proceedings of IMECE 2003 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Washington D.C., Nov., 2003. F. Parsinejad and H. Metghalchi, Burning Speed Measurement of JP-8 Air Flames, Proceedings of IMECE2004: ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, Anaheim, California, USA, 2004.
2. One Manuscript and five Peer Reviewed Papers. 3. One Ph.D. student, one Masters student and one Bachelors degree student. 4. No inventions. 5. Experimental facilities for heating combustion chamber have been added to
the current set up. Data have been collected for liquid fuel (JP-8) and burning speed has been calculated using a thermodynamic model. Also flame pictures have been studied for any cracked or wrinkled flame structure.
6. No patents. 7. Farzan Parsinejad earning a Ph.D. and Christian Arcari earning a Masters
REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE (SF298)
MIL-T-83133C grade JP-8 is of interest to the U.S. Army as the single fuel for the
battlefield. The conversion to JP-8 occurred primarily to improve the safety of aircraft,
although the single fuel for the battlefield concept (and the similarity of jet fuel to
diesel fuel) is centered on the use of aviation kerosene in all Air Force and Army aircraft
and ground vehicles. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms that describe combustion of
many of the components in JP-8 are not available and are unlikely to be developed in the
near future. Hence there is a need to study the characteristics of JP-8 experimentally.
The following is the final progress report on our developments and
accomplishments through May 2001- May 2004. The detail of the experimental facilities
including two combustion chambers, spherical and cylindrical, optical set up, a high
temperature oven and also our thermodynamic model used to calculate burning speed
were discussed in the last reports and will be briefly discussed here. Measurements have
been done in these facilities for gaseous and liquid fuels over the wide range of
temperature and pressure. In the last year we developed a new heating system for fuel
injection line in cylindrical vessel. The liquid fuel line in the spherical vessel was
redesigned. Burning speeds of premixed JP-8 air have been measured for a range of
temperature and pressure. Pictures of JP-8 flame have been taken using the high speed
CCD camera in the cylindrical chamber. The results are presented in this report.
Experimental Set up
The burning speed measurements were made in the existing spherical combustion
chamber. The spherical chamber consists of two hemispheric heads bolted together to
make a 15.4 cm inner diameter sphere. The chamber was designed to withstand pressures
up to 425 atm and is fitted with ports for spark electrodes, diagnostic probes, and ports
for filling and evacuating it. A thermocouple inserted through in one of the chamber ports
was used to check the initial temperature of the gas inside the chamber. A Kistler 603B1
piezo-electric pressure transducer with a Kistler 5010B charge amplifier was used to
obtain dynamic pressure vs. time records from which the burning speed was determined.
Ionization probes mounted flush with the wall located at the top and bottom of the
chambers were used to measure the arrival time of the flame at the wall and to check for
spherical symmetry and buoyant rise.
The spherical vessel is housed in an oven which can be heated up to 500 K.
Liquid fuel is stored in a 115 cc heated pressure vessel and is transferred through a heated
line inside the oven to the spherical chamber. Several thermocouples are located on the
line from the fuel reservoir to the vessel to monitor temperature of the fuel passageway.
A heated strain gauge (Kulite XTE-190) in the oven is used to measure partial pressure of
fuel in the vessel.
The companion cylindrical chamber is made of SAE4140 steel with an inner
diameter and length of 133.35 mm. The two end windows are 34.93 mm thick Pyrex with
a high durability against pressure and temperature shocks as well as having very good
optical properties. A Z-type Schlieren/Shadowgraph ensemble has been set up to
visualize the flame propagation. A high speed CCD camera (1108-0014,