4. skeletal system

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  • 1. The Skeletal System Structure, Function, and Diseases

2. Functions 1. Support Framework that supports body and cradles its soft organs Without the skeleton your body would collapse like jelly. 3. Functions 2. Protection Protects internal organs and fragile body parts: heart, lungs, brain, lungs, spinal cord, etc. 4. Functions 3. Movement bones act as levers for muscles 5. Functions 4. Mineral storage calcium & phosphate 6. Functions 5. Blood cell formation- hematopoiesis 7. Diaphysis Shaft Composed of compact bone Epiphysis Ends of the bone Composed mostly of spongy bone Gross Anatomy of a Long Bone CHAguilar 2011 8. Types of Bone Cells Osteocytes Mature bone cells Osteoblasts Bone-forming cells Osteoclasts Bone-destroying cells Break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium Bone remodeling is a process by both osteoblasts and osteoclasts 9. Osteoblast Osteocyte Osteoclast Eats bone Builds new bone Mature bone cel 10. Changes in the Human Skeleton In embryos, the skeleton is primarily hyaline cartilage During development, much of this cartilage is replaced by bone Cartilage remains in isolated areas Bridge of the nose Parts of ribs Joints 11. I. ENDOCHONDRAL OSSIFICATION- cartilage to bone a. Circumference - deposition of osteoblasts beneath periosteum forming new bone on the surface and increasing girth - osteoclasts dissolve bony tissue in interior to give way to marrow cavity b. Length- 4 regions in epiphyseal plate ( between epiphysis and diaphysis) 1. resting cartilage cells 2. zone of proliferation 3. zone of hypertrophy 4. zone of calcification 12. II. INTRAMEMBRANOUS OSSIFICATION Membranous tissue to bone In flat bones of the skull Done through appositional growth ( addition on sides of osseous tissue) Cannot grow by interior expansion BONE GROWTH AND RESORPTION Childhood- faster ossification, slower resorption= inc in size of the bone Adulthood- ossification=resorption-constant size Late adulthood(35-40 onwards)- faster resorption, slower ossification- osteoporosis in older women 13. cartilage calcified cartilage bone epiphyse al plate epiphyseal line Endochondral Ossification 2o ossification center Fetus: 1st 2 months AdultChildhood Just before birth 14. Bone Fractures Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings A break in a bone Types of bone fractures Closed (simple) fracture break that does not penetrate the skin Open (compound) fracture broken bone penetrates through the skin Bone fractures are treated by reduction and immobilization Realignment of the bone 15. Common Types of Fractures 16. Stages in the Healing of a Bone Fracture 17. Bone Repair: 1. Electrical stimulation of the fracture site: Increases speed and completeness of healing The e- stimulation inhibits PTH and slow osteoclasts down from reabsorbing bone 2. Ultrasound treatment: Daily treatments reduce healing time of broken bones by 25-35% 3. Free vascular fibular graft technique: Transplant fibula in arm Gives good blood supply not available in other treatments 4. Bone substitutes: Crushed bone from cadaver- but risk of HIV and hepatitis Sea bone- coral Artificial bone- ceramic 18. Paranasal Sinuses SlideCopyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hollow portions of bones surrounding the nasal cavity Figure 5.10 19. Warm and moisten air Lighten the skull Enhance voice resonance Frontal Sinus Ethmoid Sinus Sphenoid Sinus Maxillary Sinus 20. EFFECTS OF HORMONES ON BONES 1. Growth hormone hyposecretion/removal of pituitary gland - results in premature cessation of transformation of chondrocytes to bones in epiphysis Hypersecretion- giantism/acromegaly 2. Parathormone- overactivity - bones become unduly fragile and fracture spontaneously and cysts form ( osteitis fibrosa cystica) 3.Thyroxine- deficiency in young- delayed/inc ossification= softer bones 4. estrogen- stimulate osteoblastic activity -def during post-menopausal stage- osteoporosis 21. Head shape and delivery method Method of delivery determined thru diameter of female pelvis and size of fetal skull Small pelvic measurements- cesarean operation no molding( different shape of head) Average pelvic measurements-natural delivery head is molded during its passage through birth canal Instrumental delivery- placing forceps on head and pulling very delicate job and could cause damage to motor cortex of brain spastic child 22. Diseases and Conditions of the Skeletal System 23. Arthritis 24. Bursitis Inflammation of the Bursa (fluid filled sac surrounding the joint). bursa can become inflamed from injury, infection or due to an underlying rheumatic condition. typically identified by localized pain or swelling, tenderness, and pain with motion of the tissues in the affected area. 25. Bunion Swelling of bursa of great toe due to pressure or friction from badly fitting shoes 26. Tendonitis literally means inflammation of the tendon If normal smooth gliding motion of tendon is impaired, the tendon will become inflamed and movement will become painful. The most common cause of tendonitis is overuse. 27. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Due to any condition that causes swelling or a change in position of the tissue within the carpal tunnel can squeeze and irritate the median nerve. This causes tingling and numbness of the thumb, index, and the middle fingers, a condition known as "carpal tunnel syndrome." 28. Osteoporosis means "porous bones. Risk Factors: Being female:decreased estrogen after menopause Small frame Caucasian or Asian ethnicity Little weight-bearing exercise diet poor in Ca++ and protein abnormal vitamin D receptors Smoking Drinking alcohol 29. Scoliosis Scoliosis is an abnormal curvature of the spine. Scoliosis runs in families, but doctors often don't know the cause. More girls than boys have severe scoliosis. Adult scoliosis may be a worsening of a condition that began in childhood scoliosis may also result from a degenerative joint condition in the spine. 30. Kyphosis With kyphosis, your spine may look normal or you may develop a hump. Kyphosis can occur as a result of developmental problems; degenerative diseases, such as arthritis of the spine; osteoporosis with compression fractures of the vertebrae; or trauma to the spine. It can affect children, adolescents and adults. 31. Lordosis A spine affected by lordosis shows evidence of a curvature of the back bones (vertebrae) in the lower back area, giving the child a "swayback" appearance. 32. Tuberculosis of the Spine- (Potts Disease) A form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis that impacts the spine, Aka arthritis for the vertebrae More properly known as tuberculosis spondylitis, Potts disease is often experienced as a local phenomenon that begins in the thoracic section of the spinal column. Early signs of the presence of Potts disease generally begin with a simple back pain that in short order,will begin to multiply. 33. Rickets Rickets is the softening and weakening of bones in children, usually because of an extreme and prolonged vitamin D deficiency. Some skeletal deformities caused by rickets may need corrective surgery. 34. Knock knees Bow legs 35. Beaded ribs 36. Scurvy Consumption of fruits and vegetables or diets fortified with vitamin C are essential to avoid ascorbic acid deficiency. Even though scurvy is uncommon, it still occurs and can affect adults and children who have chronic dietary vitamin C deficiency. 37. Gout results from an overload of uric acid in the body which leads to the formation of tiny crystals of urate that deposit in the joints. When crystals form in the joints it causes recurring attacks of joint inflammation (arthritis). Chronic gout can also lead to deposits of hard lumps of uric acid in and around the joints and may cause joint destruction, decreased kidney function and kidney stones 38. Acromegaly occurs when the pituitary gland produces too much growth When there is too much growth hormone in the body, these tissues grow larger than normal. This excessive growth can cause serious disease and even premature death. 39. Poliomyelitis a highly infectious disease caused by a virus which invades the nervous system causing total paralysis in a matter of hours. can strike at any age, but affects mainly children under three (over 50% of all cases). The virus enters the body through the mouth and multiplies in the intestine. Initial symptoms are fever, fatigue, headache, vomiting, stiffness in the neck and pain in the limbs. One in 200 infections leads to irreversible paralysis (usually in the legs). Amongst those paralysed, 5%-10% die when their breathing muscles become immobilized. As most people infected with poliovirus have no signs of illness, poliovirus can spread widely After initial infection with poliovirus, the virus is shed intermittently in faeces (excrement) for several weeks. During that time, polio can spread rapidly through the community. 40. Herniated Disk Soft inner central portion of intervertebral disk protrudes into vertebral canal and exerts pressure on spinal cord Laminectomy-operation to correct condition 41. Spina Bifida birth defect that involves the incomplete development of the spinal cord or its coverings. The term spina bifida comes from Latin and literally means "split" or "open" spine. Spina bifida occurs at the end of the first month of pregnancy when the two sides of the embryo's spine fail to join together, leaving an open area. In some cases, the spinal cord or other membranes may push through this opening in the back. The condition usually isdetected before a baby is born and treated right away. 42. Talipes Equinovarus- Clubfoot A deformity of the whole foot that is present at birth. Aka as 'talipes', as the deformit