4. ergonomic of wimp interface

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Transcript of 4. ergonomic of wimp interface

  • 1. HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION (INTERACTION HOMME-MACHINE) Sethserey SAM

2. CHAPTER 4: ERGONOMIC OF WIMP INTERFACE Usage conduct rules from honest graphic user interface designer for interactive system 3. INTERACTION STYLE

  • Command line
    • Query language and question / reply
  • Menus
  • WIMP interfaces
  • Selection form
  • Natural language (handwriting, speech)
  • 3D interface, gesture (sensor), approaching the reality,

4. WINDOWS/WIDGETS

  • A Window is rarely a passive object: Widget
  • Interactive graphic object
  • Ergonomic recommendation concerning all aspects of widgets
  • General design for display (simple)
  • Dynamic behavior: react to user actions
  • Some ergonomic recommendation
  • Open the windows
  • Direct manipulation: maintain the
  • feedback

5. WINDOWS AND FEEDBACK

  • An essential dimension
    • Always conserve the couplingperception/actionwhich allows the paradigm of direct manipulation
  • Example
    • Pointing / selection
    • Movement / Modification / Tracking
    • Opening / Closure

6. WINDOWS: OPENING

  • Open a Window
  • A strategy to avoid
    • Fixed parameters for opening
  • Two strategies acceptable
    • Concentrate on user preferences : opening to the position and follow the size of the last closure
    • Concentrate on focus : opening to the proximity of attention focus (for example: the icon which is just clicked on), but to a sufficiently distance which will not mask this focus

7. WINDOWS: OPENING / CLOSURE Opening an Windows Conservation of feedback Closure an Windows The closure without feedback (no animation ) is disturbing 8. MULTI-WINDOWS

  • Advantage: multi-tasking environment
    • A task may need several applications
    • Transparent management of multi-task compare with commands in UNIXbg / fg
  • Principle problem: masking of information
    • Lose of context
    • Access time for the masking windows
  • Different strategies for multi-tasking management
    • Mosaics of windows (tiling)
    • Flipping windows
    • Overlapping windows (recovery)
    • Zoomable windows

9. MULTI-WINDOWS: STRATEGY Mosaics of windows (tiling) 10. MULTI-WINDOWS: STRATEGY Windows overlapping Flipping windows 11. MULTI-WINDOWS: STRATEGY Zoomable windows Mac OS X (Expos / Quartz Extreme) 12. MULTI-WINDOWS: RECOMMENDATION

  • Organization strategies
  • Allow recovery or failover (overlapping) of windows for experienced user
  • Use tiling windows for occasional user
  • Example: Encyclopedia for public
  • Strategies for division in windows
  • Organize the division according to the task: regrouping coherent of information
  • Limit the quantity of information to memorize from one window to another
  • Adapt thenumber of windowsto the utilization: increase the number of windows for an utilization less frequent, complex windows is limited/reserved for very frequent usage (ex: Paint, Photoshop, )

13. ICON

  • Advantage
    • Easily identifiable
    • Compact: small space in interface
  • Difficulty
    • Identification the meaning associate to an icon

[Camacho 90] 14. ICON: CONSTRUCTION

  • Methodologies
    • Identify all the commands we want to make icon and create the icon in the same time
    • Limit the icons to frequent command
    • Always valid the conception by an experimentation

Construction rules 15. ICON: GUIDELINE

  • Some recommendations
    • Limit number of icons on interface (degradation from 12)
    • Ensure that the character of selection of an icon is clearly visible
  • Help identify the icons
    • Ensure that the icons are well distinguishable from one to another
    • Group the icons base on family
    • Coherence the representation in the group

Prioritize the association icon/text 16. MENUS

  • Not necessary in graphic
    • Menus are used before the creation of GUIs WIMP
  • Advantage
    • Structure the functionalities of system following an organization logic and coherence which is easy understand and memorize
    • Important of task analyses
  • Limitation
    • Lack of rapidity: useful especially for novice and occasional user (forecast shortcut for expert)
  • Different structures of menus
    • Unique menus
    • Linear sequential task (example: software installation)
    • Hierarchic
    • Acyclic

17. MENUS: LINEAR

  • Use case
    • Sequential task
    • Simplification of a task through a succession of sub-tasks

Example Form creation inMS ACCESS 18. MENUS: ACYCLIC

  • Explore order indifferent
    • Sub-task independent or optional
    • Menus tabs, options

19. MENUS: HIERARCHIC

  • Example 1
    • MS PowerPoint: 3 level, width (factor of branching) 6 to 20

20. MENUS: HIERARCHIC

  • Example 2
    • Windows Start Menus: vary level and width

21. MENUS: HIERARCHIC

  • Which organization of level and width?
    • Kiger (1984): 64
    • Wallace et al. (1987): problem menus level
      • 96% supplementary of errors
      • 16% more of time execution

Width x Levels 22. MENUS: HIERARCHIC

  • Law of Landauer and Nachbar (1985)
    • Experimental law: access time of a menus of N items which is divided into D balance levels (the same factor of branchingbfor each node), suppose D = log b (N)
    • Experiment with N=4096; b=2, 4, 8, 16
    • General rule T = D * (k 1+ k 2 *log(b))
  • Recommendation
  • Prioritize the largerof menus to its levels
  • Maximum width : 10 (novices) to 20 (experts) item maximum for each level
  • Maximum level : 3 or 4
  • Vary width : we can increase the factors of branching to the root and leave of tree
  • Always consider thespecificity of task

23. MENUS: ORDER OF THE REPRESENTATION OF ITEMS

  • Sort the item for sequential data (natural order)
    • Date, number (chapter number, quantity, ),
  • Do not have natural order: static ordering
    • Order items base on alphabetic
    • Functional : the most important item first
    • Frequency : the item most used first
  • Do not have natural order: dynamic ordering
    • Last used item first

24. ORDER OF THE REPRESENTATION: EXPERIMENTATION

  • Card (1982): Text Editor menus with 18 items
  • Somberg and Picardi (1983): menus with 5 items
    • Selection time proportional to the position of the item in the list
    • Selection time more rapid with familiarized items
  • Mitchell and Schneiderman (1988): dinner menu selection
    • Best performance with static menus vs. dynamic menus

25. MENUS: ORDER OF THE REPRESENTATION OF ITEMS Alphabetic Functional Frequency Dynamic Static: positional coherence 26. MENUS: ORDER OF THE REPRESENTATION OF ITEMS

  • Shared menus
    • Compromise previous solution
    • 3-4 items the most frequent use
    • Last selected items
    • Static functional menus for the following
  • Principle of commensurate efforts
    • Destructive commands (cannot cancel) at the end of menus, with separation

MS Office XP 27. MENUS: