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Transcript of 3RD ISSUE MARCH,2014 - S(val2d3vl3po4meuieszmgsr2))/pdf/March... · PDF file4...

3RD ISSUE4TH YEAR MARCH,2014

Science Horizon

Editorial Board

Prof. Gopendra Kishore Roy

Prof. Govind Chandra Sahoo

Prof. Tarini Charan Panda

Prof. Arun Chandra Sahu

Prof. Niraj Kanti Tripathy

Prof. Satyaban Jena

Prof. Bijay Kumar Parida

Prof. Madhumita Das

CONTENTS

Subject Author Page

1. Editorial : Women in Science Prof. Tarani Charan Kara 2

2. Madame Curie, the two-time Nobel Laureate Dr. Dwijesh Kumar Panda 3

3. A Journey of Translational Research in Engineering Physics Prof. K L Chopra 7

4. Promoting Green Footprints in Construction: A Sustainable Subhranshu Sekhar SamalTechno-management Approach for Developing India Somshekhar Mohanty 12

5. Use of Nanotechnology in Agriculture Dr. Subas Chandra Sahoo 19

6. Agroforestry Improves Soil Alok Kumar Patra 21

7. Integrated Pest and Disease Management Dr. Sanjeeb Kumar DasMiss Padmini Bisoyoi 24

8. Carbon Capture & Sequestration Bishnu Prasad Behera 27

9. Constellation: A Different Way to Look at the Stars Sibani Nanda 31

10. Aquatic Ecstasy with Facetious Titles-2 Dr Bibhudatta MishraDr (Mrs) Minakshi Sahoo 35

11. Healthy Heart Reflects Healthy Mind Sandhyarani Acharya 37

12. Concept of Vaccines and Usefullness of Vaccination Smt. Jyotsna Rani Mishra 40

13. Add Salad as a Staple to Your Diet Dr.Manashi MohantyDr Pritishri Parhi 43

14. Wonder Animals : The Gastrotrichs Dr. Krishna Chandra Rath 45

15. Quiz Bibhuprasad Mohapatra 46

The Cover Page depicts : On the occasion of 'International Women's Day', Women in the filed of Science and Technology.

Cover Design : Sanatan Rout

President, Odisha Bigyan AcademyProf. Uma Charan Mohanty

AdvisorProf. Sodananda Torasia

Chief EditorProf. Niranjan Barik

EditorProf. Tarani Charan Kara

Managing EditorDr Rekha DasSecretary, Odisha Bigyan Academy

EDITORIALWOMENIN SCIENCE

Science and Technology has been an integralpart of Indian Civilization andCulture. Men andwomenhave been active in Science from the very begining ofhuman civilization. At a glance, Women in general mayappear - simple, docile, unassuming and humble. But,behind this simple straight face, is a razor sharp brainwith an uncanny ability to execute and convert thoughtinto action without much ado. Women are known tohave made contributions to science from the earliesttimes. Certainly, women were thinkers and questionerslong before, but unfortunately it was an untappedresource. They were and are resourceful, passionateand creative about their work, as any other malescientist and have contributed in all spheres of technicaladvancement of humanity. Upto 19th Century mostwomen did not have access to institutions of higherlearning and laboratories, which prevented them fromparticipation in scientific revolution. However, the lastcentury has witnessed an explosion of knowledge inScience and Technology. Science and Technology havepermeated into every sphere of life and have becomea part of our day-to-day living. In India, though thefemale population represents approximately half of thetotal population (women numbering 49.6 croresconstitute 48.26% of the country's population : 2001census), the status of women in the society at all levelsis yet to reach a satisfactory level. Large scale genderdiscrimination, inequity, together with some socialfactors have denied females opportunities foreducation and employment on par with males.Traditional mindsets, prevalent over generations, didnot encourage women from opting for courses likephysical sciences, mathematics and technology, whichare perceived as being more in male domain. Furtherstudy of science and technology did not ensure betteropportunities and smooth career path for women. Thesituation in the developing countries like India is worsebecause education and health, particularly of femalesare issues of low priority, the primary concern beinglivelihood.

In recent years the issue of marginalizingwomen from scientific career is being seen withconcern all over the world. With the objective ofstrengthening the role of women in the developmentalprocess and promoting their representation in scientificand technological leadership the first internationalforum of the Third World Organisation for Women inScience (TWOWS) has been officially launched in1993. Further everyyear, onMarch 8th, the InternationalWomen's Day is being observed since 2008.

Since Independence, India has been promotingScience and Technology as one of the most powerfulinstruments of national development. There has beena significant increase in women enrolment in scienceandtechnologyto around38%in2011-12 and this needsto be driven further. Over the years women haveovercome the traditional mindset and have excelled inprofessions like teaching, medicine, pure science etc.(Ref.: Lilavati's Daughters, Published by the IndianAcademy of Science, Bangalore, 2008). Women havemade important contributions in all walks of life andmade inroads intonew fields of science and technology.Recently a Japanese Journal opined that Indian womenare number one amongst women from various countriesin acquiring and applying IT knowledge.

In spite of the achievements of women scientistsin various fields of science and technology, it seems tobe a fact that the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Award, aprestigious science award, instituted in India in 1958has been given to only 15 women (out of over 450total Bhatnagar awardees) until 2013. It certainlydoesn't reflect well for women scientists in India,especially, since India as a country, has a rich heritageof erudite women educationists and philosophers inancient times. Analyzing this issue we found in Indiamore girls drop out after primary school. The reasonsare complex and mostly related to societal prejudiceand economic compulsions. The value of educationfor girls has not been properly perceived among thepoor communities of India. Though there is norestriction on women entering universities or otherInstitutions of higher learning, the societal pressure,economic factors and access to colleges which areaway from home, restrict the entry of Indian Womeninto University.

Although there is no disparity existing in theemoluments of male and female scient ists andtechnologists, an imbalance may be existing in the levelof decision making and in the exercise of authoritywhich is mostly male-dominated. But the pattern ofoccupying positions of authority has changedprogressively during the past years and the trendappears to be encouraging. Many women with highqualifications and experience have reached the top.Thus it can be concluded that given the requisitefacilities, scope and opportunities the women in scienceand technology in India can be high achievers to boostthe growth and development of science and technologyof our country.

Prof. Tarani Charan Karae-mail : dr_tckara@rediffmail.com

3ScienceHorizon

MARCH, 2014

MADAME CURIE, THE TWO-TIME NOBEL LAUREATEDr. Dwijesh KumarPanda

Madame Marie Curie, a pioneeringphysicist and a distinguished Nobel Laureate,who discovered the radioactive substances,Radium and Polonium was the first to isolatepure radiumandcoin the term, "Radioactivity".Her path to success was a very difficult one.She had to fight male chauvinism and gender,prejudice that came in the way.

Early years of struggle and hardships:

Madame Curie was born as MaryaSklodowska,on 7th November1867, in Russia-occupied Poland, in a family of patrioticintellectuals. She was the youngest of fivech ildren of Wladysl aw & Bronisl awSklodowska who were teachers by profession.Her family had lost their property and fortunesduringPoland's independence movement. Shestudied in the Boardingof J.Sikorska and laterattended a Gymnasium for girls, from whereshe graduated with a gold medal. Shecould notpursuehigher educationas females were barredfor higher education in Poland. She , therefore,attended science classes at a secret school forwomen called the "Flying University". It wascalled 'flying' because there was no campusand classes wereheldsecretly inpeople'shomes.

She worked as a governess when shesupported her sister's medical studies. Hersister married a physician in 1890 and movedto Paris and invited Marya. Marya moved toParis in 1891 where she studied at Sorbonneduring the day and tutored in the evening.

In the spring of 1894, Marya expresseddesire to have a laboratory for pursuing herresearch to a Polish physicist of heracquaintance. He introduced her to PierreCurie, a pioneer in research on magnetism andwas the laboratory chiefat themunicipal schoolof Industrial physics and chemistry, in Paris.The meetingbetweenCurie and Marya, changednot only their individual lives but also thecourse of science. They got married in 1895,and thereafter, it was only in 1897 that Mariecould settle down to start her research workfor a Ph.D. degree.

Radioactivity:Anunstable Fascination!!

The French physicist Henri Becquerel(1852-1908 ) discovered 'Uranium Rays' in1896. Despite Becquerel's intriguing finding,the scientific community continued to focusits attention on Roentgen's X-rays, neglectingthe much weaker Becquerel 'rays' or Uranium'rays'. Marie began her experimental work onthese less studied rays in a crowded dampstoreroom of the institute.

Madame Marie Curie

ScienceHorizon4

MARCH, 2014

About 15 years earlier, Pierre and hiselder brother, Jacques, had invented a newkind of electrometer, a device for measuringextremely low electrical currents. Marie usedthis 'Curie Electrometer' for measuring thefaint currents that are generated when air isbombarded with uranium rays. Though themoist air in the store room had a tendency todissipate the electric