3D Printers, bio-printers and physibles

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Please enable sound! 3 videos have sound. This is an overview of 2012 existing and emerging technologies and opportunities with 3D printing and bio-printing. This is a very broad field, and highly technical, thus this presentation has no pretension in covering every bits of informations, but rather present a big picture to answer the question: why does it matter? This presentation is a slightly modified version of a face-to-face presentation I have done. In the original presentation, only the violin demo had sound, but I added sound for 2 more videos here where I thought that was necessary since I cannot speak to you. The presentation originally lasted 15 to 20 minutes without the bonus material, which was used on request to answer questions after the presentation. You can download the full presentation with comments and videos embedded as an ODP file at: https://docs.google.com/open?id=0Bz3o2wTnXoAdWlRybGJWQjQ2ams Size: about 25 MB

Transcript of 3D Printers, bio-printers and physibles

3D printers, bio printers and physibles

3D Printers,3D Printers, bio-printers bio-printers and physibles and physibles

3D Printers, bio-printers and physibles

By Stephen LarroqueComputer Science student at the

University Pierre-and-Marie-Curie of Paris

An inventory in 2012 of existing and emerging technologies and opportunities

Myth of Daedalus 3D Printers Bio-Printers Opening to the future Conclusion

Outline

Myth of Daedalus

Wings made of feathers and waxAutomatons

3D Printersaka additive manufacturing

1980s: Early examples SLS, Stereolithography and FDM patented

1995 : 3D printing term coined at MIT 2005: RepRap project is born 2009:

MakerBot first kits Thingiverse

2012: ThePirateBay Physibles

A little history

1980s: 3D printers are big and expensive (100K$ to 1M$)

Very complicated setup Only rapid prototyping, no final product Used for:

industrial prototypes Architects scale models

And thats all!

Some historical constraints...

Modern printers How it works

Object shaped layer-by-layer

What you can make

What you can make 2

3D printed Stradivarius-like violin(see next slide for video)

Dynamic gears (all-in-one-part printing)

What you can make 3

no assembly!

Interactive objects, sensorsand circuit boards

What you can make 4

Micro structures

What you can make 5

A 285 m racecar

St. Stephen's Cathedral, ViennaLondon Tower Bridge

smaller than a grain of sand

Big structures (sand, car, guns, engine, aircraft, drones, metamaterials, etc..)

What you can make 6

What you can make 7

Areion EV: 140 KM/H

What you can make 8

Food printers, in near-future meat printers

What you can make 9

Perfectly tailored prostheses

What you can make 10

Perfectly tailored prostheses

What you can make 11

Lightweight & cheap Magic Arms exoskeleton made for children(next slide for video)

Wide resolution range (micro objects to buildings) Complex structures otherwise impossible to make Lightweight (no joint overhead) Cheaper than any other manufacturing solution Stronger (all in one part = no joint failure) Ecological: Smaller CO2 footprint No waste of material Advent of rapid manufacturing (vs rapid prototyping)

Advantages of 3D printing

Still expensive Complex to use Its only hype

Or is it really?

Limits?

DIY opensource 3D printer Self-replicating (almost) Object duplication w/ 3D scanner (cheap) Many forks (like Linux distributions) Most common 3D printer Quick propagation Print parties,FabLabs,

Public Libraries Universal constructor?

The RepRap project

3D Bio-printersaka regenerative medicine

The culture of organs by Alexis Carrel & Charles A Lindbergh, 1938 1996: First successful real world use of a biomaterial 2002: Pr M. Nakamura noticed standard ink droplets size of human

cells, and made the first 3D bio-printed biomaterial (with alive cells) using an Epson inkjet.

2003: Thomas Bolands lab made first 2D bioprinter 2008:

Pr M. Nakamura invented first working bioprinter to print biotubes (blood vessel) Organovos NovoGen MMX first commercial bioprinter

2011: New 3D bio printer technologies demonstrated by Dr Anthony Atala

Quick history

Works similarly to 3D-printers Use Bio-Materials scaffolds + living cells

How it works

RESULT

How it works 2

Printing a rats heart

Can engineer anything: bones, ears, fingers, blood vessels, heart, lungs, bladder, skin, etc.

Printing organs

Skin in-situ scanner+regenerator

Printing organs 2

3D bioprinted lab grown lung

Opening to the futureOr how 3D printing may change our lives

Repair/replace a damaged organ Instant product (no delivery) Food safer and ecological production Shareable objects, peer-to-peer objects sharing,

collective production (eg: relatives help to make a car just like building a house)

Open-source objects Transplants abundance, no chance of rejection May abolish manual (child?) labor Might improve lives in resource-challenged world's

regions

Future good scenarios

Identity theft (eg: 3D copy of fingerprint, or even whole hand!)

Goods counterfeiting Weapons production (massive production or

custom undetected weapons) Terrorism and remote access (hacking your

3D printer and print a bomb or a remote drone)

Cloning soldiers? Grey goo end-of-world scenario

Future bad scenarios

Conclusion

Conclusion 3D printing 2D printing + 1D 3D printing is rapidly maturing Still a lot to discover Can save lives (literally) May disrupt property and manufacturing processes Ethical and law questions need to be solved Potentially very dangerous

Books The culture of organs by Alexis Carrel & Charles A Lindbergh, 1938 Check the comments across the presentation for more

Magazines Make: Ultimate guide to 3D printing (Nov 2012)

Further reading/viewing

Videos Anthony Atala: Printing a human kidney and Growing new organs

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9RMx31GnNXY&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7SfRgg9botI

Klaus Stadlmann - The world's smallest 3D Printerhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D2IQkKE7h9I

Lisa Harouni: A primer on 3D printinghttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OhYvDS7q_V8&feature=related

Interview of Dr Adrian Bowyer, inventor of RepRaphttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ltYeNuOvLn0

Websites 3ders.org reprap.org thingiverse.com thepiratebay.se/browse/605 euromold.com

Further reading/viewing

Dr Attalan Ted Talks Stratasyss Magic Arms and turbo-prop aircraft engine NASAs rover Sean Charlesworths Octopod 3D printed 2D printer by students at the University of Virginia Disney Researchs optic fibered interactive 3D printed objects RepRap project for images Micro printer from the TU Vienna and presented by Klaus Stadlmann Columbia Pictures for the Skyfall movie image Aston Martin for the DB5 model Areion is part of the Formula Group T project run by Belgian

masterstudents Urbee team Objet for the 3D printing videos demonstrations DARPAs Ostrich robot (FastRunner) EOS for the Stradivarius like violin

References

Fun fact

Aston Martin DB5 3D printed replica

Bonus material

3 established technologies: SLS (selective laser sintering) FDM (fused depostion modeling) SLA (stereolithograhpy)

Newcomers: Sand Clustering (buildings) Contour Crafting (printing concrete buildings) Two-photon Lithography (micro structures) Corner Lithography (nano structures)

Modern 3D printers technos

3D printers materials: thermoplastics, any metal alloy (including

aliminium and titanium), plaster, concrete, ceramic, sand, edible (eg: chocolate, meat), etc..

Meta materials (invisibility cloaks!) Bio printers materials:

agar, gelatine, chitosan, clollagen, and alginate and fibrin.

Recently done: human stem cells.

3D printing materials

3D printers: DIY: from 250$ Assembled kits : from 450$ Industrial pro 3D printers: from 1,000$ to 15,000$

3D bio-printers : DIY: not yet communicated, but probably low (based on

standard inkjets or on RepRap) Industrial : Bioplotter is priced 18,000$

Materials : Thermoplastic filaments: 10$ - 40$ / kg Other materials : usually less than what another

manufacturing process would incur Object the size of a computer mouse $2

3D printing cost

Current research goal: extend lifespan of biomaterials from 10 (1 decade) to 40 years (4 decades) or more.A few people already live with engineered organs since more than 10 years.

1st-gen method: Use a standard desktop printer, but with "ink-cells" and a depth platform.

(2 chambers heart, 40 minutes, 46 hours later the muscle's cells contract) 2nd-gen method (current): 3D bioprinter 3rd-gen method (future): Scanner + on-body printer Next-gen method (future): CT scanner + 3d bioprinter

Complexity scale of organs: blood vessels and arteries only, and other kind of organs hollow organs solid organs like ears or digits, because they require a big amount of cells highly vascularized organs such as the heart, the liver or the kidney are by far

the hardest to make (ear or digits are very easy).

3D bioprinting methods

Thank you!

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