3D Password M Sc BHU Sem 1

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  • 1. Authentication & their types. Knowledge Based Authentication. Token Based Authentication. Biometrics Authentication. Drawbacks. 3D Password. 3D Virtual Environment. Advantages & Application. Attacks & Countermeasures. Conclusion. References. Areas Of Discussion

2. Authentication Authentication is a process of validating who you are to whom you claimed to be. Human authentication techniques are as follows: 1. Knowledge Based (What you know) 2. Token Based (What you have) 3. Biometrics (What you are) 3. Three Basic Identification Methods of password Possession (something I have) Keys Passport Smart Card Knowledge (Something I know) Password Pin Biometrics (something I am) Face Fingerprints Iris 4. Password Password is basically an encryption algorithms. It is 8-15 character or slightly more than that. Mostly textual passwords nowadays are kept which are very simple. 5. PASSPHRASE Passphrase length is about 30-50 characters or more than that so it creates ambiguity to remember, if there is any proper sequence. 6. Its the enhance version of password. It is a combination of words or simply collection of password in proper sequence. It contains any well known thought also. Length of passphrase is about 30-50 character or more than that also. 7. T O K E N B A S E D 8. A security token (or sometimes a hardware token, authentication token, USB token, cryptographic token, software token, virtual token) may be a physical device that an authorized user of computer services is given to ease authentication. 9. Token Disconnected Token Connected Token Contactless Token Single Sign on Software Token Mobile Device Token Smart Card Bluetooth 10. B I O M E T R I C S 11. Biometrics Refer to a broad range of technologies. Automate the identification or verification of an individual. 12. Based on human characteristics or body organs 13. Process 14. Percentage market share by type of biometric technology in 2003 15. How secure is your password? Now with the technology change, fast processors and many tools on the Internet, cracking password has become a Child's Play. Ten years back Klein performed such tests and he could crack 10-15 passwords per day. PASSWORD 16. Token Involves additional costs, such as the cost of the token and any replacement fees. Users always need to carry the token with them. Users need multiple tokens for multiple Web sites and devices. Does not protect fully from man-in-the-middle attacks (i.e., attacks where an intruder intercepts a user's session and steals the user's credentials by acting as a proxy between the user and the authentication device without the user's knowledge). 17. BIOMETRICS Biometrics has also some drawbacks. Suppose you select your fingerprint as a biometrics.. But what to do when you have crack or wound in your finger. And now a days some hackers even implement exact copy of your biometrics also. 18. The 3D passwords are more customizable, and very interesting way of authentication. A 3D password is a multifactor authentication scheme that combine RECOGNITION +RECALL +TOKENS +BIOMETRICS in one authentication system. 19. The 3D password presents a virtual environment containing various virtual objects. The user walks through the environment and interacts with the objects. It is the combination and sequence of user interactions that occur in the 3D environment. 20. This is achieved through interacting only with the objects that acquire information that the user is comfortable in providing. It becomes much more difficult for the attacker to guess the users 3-D password. 21. Virtual objects Virtual objects can be any object we encounter in real life: A computer on which the user can type in. A fingerprint reader that requires users fingerprint. A paper or white board on which user can type. An Automated teller(ATM) machine that requires a token. A light that can be switched on/off. A television or radio where channels can be selected. A car that can be driven. A graphical password scheme. 22. A biometric recognition device. A staple that can be punched. A book that can be moved from one place to another. Any real life object. Any upcoming authentication scheme. 23. Snapshot of a proof - of - concept virtual art gallery , which contains 36 pictures and six computers 24. STATE DIAGRAM OF A 3D PASSWORD APPLICATION 25. 3D VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENT 26. 3D Virtual Environment 3-D virtual environment affects the usability, effectiveness, and acceptability of a 3-D password system. 3-D environment reflects the administration needs and the security requirements. 3D Virtual Environment 27. The design of 3D virtual environments should follow these guidelines: Real Life Similarity Object Uniqueness & Distinction 3D Virtual Environment Size Number of objects & their types System Importance 28. Advantages Flexibility Strength Ease to Memorize Respect of Privacy 29. Applications The 3D passwords main application domains are protecting critical systems and resources. Critical Servers Nuclear Reactors & Military Facilities Airplanes and Missile Guiding 30. A small virtual environment can be used in the following systems like- ATM Personal digital assistance Desktop computers & laptops Web authentication etc. 31. Attacks and Countermeasures Brute Force Attack Well studied Attack Shoulder-surfing Attack Timing Attack 32. Brute Force Attack The attacker has to try all possible 3D passwords. This kind of attack is very difficult for the following reasons. Time required to login . 3D Attacks are very expensive. 33. Well Studied Attack The attacker tries to find the highest probable distribution of 3D passwords. In order to launch such an attack, the attacker has to acquire knowledge of the most probable 3D password distributions. This is very difficult because the attacker has to study all the existing authentication schemes that are used in the 3D environment. Moreover, a well studied attack is very hard to accomplish since the attacker has to perform a customized attack for every different 3D virtual environment design. 34. Shoulder-surfing Attack An attacker uses a camera to record the users 3D password or tries to watch the legitimate user while the 3D password is being performed. This attack is the most successful type of attack against 3D passwords and some other graphical passwords. However, the users 3D password may contain biometric data or textual passwords that cannot be seen from behind. Therefore, we assume that the 3D password should be performed in a secure place where a shoulder surfing attack cannot be performed. 35. Timing Attack In this attack, the attacker observes how long it takes the legitimate user to perform a correct sign in using the 3D password. This observation gives the attacker an indication of the legitimate users 3D password length. However, this kind of attack alone cannot be very successful since it gives the attacker mere hints. Therefore, it would probably be launched as part of a well studied or brute force attack. Timing attacks can be very effective if the 3D virtual environment is poorly designed. 36. The authentication can be improved with 3D password, because the unauthorized person may not interact with same object at a particular location as the legitimate user. It is difficult to crack, because it has no fixed number of steps and a particular procedure. Added with biometrics and token verification this schema becomes almost unbreakable. Conclusion 37. X. Suo, Y. Zhu, and G. S. Owen, Graphical passwords: A survey, in Proc. 21st Annu. Comput. Security Appl. Conf., Dec. 59, 2005, pp. 463472. D. V. Klein, Foiling the cracker: A survey of, and improvement to passwords security, in Proc. USENIX Security Workshop, 1990, pp. 514. T. Kitten, Keeping an Eye on the ATM. (2005, Jul. 11). [Online]. Available: ATMMarketPlace.com G. E. Blonder, Graphical password, U.S. Patent 5 559 961, Sep. 24, 1996. R. Dhamija and A. Perrig, Dj Vu: A user study using images for authentication, in Proc. 9th USINEX Security Symp., Denver, CO, Aug. 2000, pp. 4558. References