38174148-Marketing-Ppt

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Transcript of 38174148-Marketing-Ppt

MARKETING AS A CONCEPT Customer orientation

Competition orientation Ability to respond to environmental changes

MARKETING AS A PROCESS Both buyer and

seller must have something to give to each other them must gain in long-term satisfying long-

Both of

Should result

relationship

MARKETING AS A MANAGERIAL FUNCTION Understanding consumer

needs Environmental scanning and market opportunity analysis Developing a competitive mktg. Plan to satisfy consumer needs /its own objectives Implementation of mktg. Plan and development of tactical plan to overcome mktg. Place problems

EVOLUTION OF MARKETING The The The The The

stage of barter-pre industrial era barterstage of money economy industrial revolution stage of competition emergence of marketing

DEVELOPMENT OF MARKETING CONCEPT Exchange concept Production concept Product concept Sales concept Marketing concept

FEATURES OF A MARKETING CONCEPT Consumer orientation Integrated management Consumer satisfaction Realizing organisational goals

action

MARKETING CHALLENGES OF LIBERALISED ECONOMY De-licensing-degree of De-licensing-

destabilization for existing players The The

challenge of mncs dominance

challenge of all pervasive competition

MARKETING CHALLENGES OF LIBERALISED ECONOMY The

exacting demands of a buyers market compelled to export and go global

Indian companies are Vulnerability of

companies comes to

the fore

ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING Socio-economic forces Socio Socio-logical forces Socio Demographic changes Age-composition Age Role of

women/sex structure of the population profile

Occupation and literacy

VALUE SYSTEM

Changed to materialistic and ready to spend on leisure from the earlier conservative

ECONOMIC FACTORS Gross

national product income

Per capita Balance

of payments position

Industry Trends

life cycle and its current phase (recovery, boom recession, depression etc) in prices-inflationary/deflationary prices-

TECHNOLOGY

From ambassador, premier, to maruti, opel- astra, fiat opeluno Packaging developments like tetra pack, cellophine

TECHNOLOGY Sea-food industry Sea-

containerized movement of goods, trawlers fitted with deep freezers product life cyclecyclematurity phase reduced

Shortening of

Mfg.-Electronic sector-volatile changes Mfg.sector Steel, coal,

textile, ferrous metals-stable metals-

GOVERNMENT POLICIES Usa

- govt. Intervention is less indiaindiagovt. Itself is major buyer and seller firms, defence forces and other govt. Agencies participate as buyers and sellers ..

Public sector

SUPPLIERS (RAW MATERIAL, ENERGY, LABOUR , CAPITAL) Bargaining power of

buyer increases

when, Buyer firm

is in a monopoly position and buys large volume relative to sellers sales by buyer firm represent a significant fraction of the buyers purchase cost.

Products purchased

SUPPLIERS (RAW MATERIAL, ENERGY, LABOUR, CAPITAL) Buyer firm Profits are

has few switching costs

less hence pressure to lower purchasing costs poses a real threat to backward integration

Buyer firm

CONTINUED Suppliers product/service

is unimportant in the buyers finished product. has full information of sellers industry

Buyer firm

BARGAINING POWER OF SUPPLIER INCREASES WHEN Seller firm Buyer is

is a monopoly firm

not an important customer important input to

Suppliers products is

buyers

BARGAINING POWER OF SUPPLIER INCREASES WHEN Finished product Suppliers products are

differentiated / have built up switching costs a real threat of forward integration

Supplier poses

COMPETITION Existing competitors Their motivators Current Current

&future goals &future strategy performance

Satisfaction with current

level Factors that will lead

to max. Retaliation

FORECASTING COMPETITORS[PORTER] Low-technology using duplicators Low Firms

deriving synergy-soda water to synergysoft drink

FORECASTING COMPETITORS[PORTER] Competing is

an obvious extension of corporate strategy Backward/forward integrating companies-(cable-to power, gear to forging shop etc.) Identify weakness in competitors strengths

INFORMATION Sources(verbal information) Radio &

television reports Peers,sub-ordinates,supervisors Peers,sub Customers Financial institutions Consultants

WRITTEN INFORMATION Trade

&industry journal

Business magazines Financial news-papers news Government publications

WRITTEN INFORMATION Helps in generating creative

idea Forecast can be used in actual decision making Framework is established for rapid assimilation of unexpected environmental changes

Techniques for environmental scanning

SPIRE APPROACH-(systematic probing and APPROACHidentification of relevant environment) Strategic marketing aspects on vertical axis Environmental factors on horizontal axis Increases sensitivity of all decision makers Helps in generating creative ideas Forecasts can be used in actual decision making Framework is established for rapid assimilation of un-expected environmental changes un-

SCENARIO BUILDING StepsSteps Analysis of

the decision Identification of key decision fators Keying in societal factors Analysis of each key variable separately Selection of scenario -logic

TopicTopic-2-UNDERSTANDING BUYERBUYER(consumer and organizational) Consumer mind

is a black box. By offering stimuli we can seek response Company controlled stimuli are-product, areprice ,advertising, sales promotion display, distribution Social stimuli-word of mouth, reference stimuligroup

CHARACTERISTICS High involvement productsproducts High price Complex features Large

difference between alternatives High perceived risk Reflect buyers self-concept self-

LOW INVOLVEMENT PRODUCT Does not

reflect buyers concept Alternatives within the same product class are similar Frequent brand switching behavior

BUYING SITUATIONS Routinised response

behaviourbehaviour-

toiletries,tea,coffee Limited problem solving [modified rere-

buy]buy]-bar soap to liquid toilet soap Extensive problem solving [new

task]task]camcorder video-camera by a camera videobuyer

BUYER MOTIVATIONS Motivation Learning Perception

BUYER MOTIVATIONS Motivation theories-Sigmund Freud, theories-

Abraham maslow,herzberg,mcclelland Learning theory Cognitive dissonance theory Perception-selective attention, selective Perceptiondistortion ,selective retention

ROLES IN CONSUMER DECISION MAKING Initiator Influencer Decider Buyer User

DECISION MAKING PROCESS Need recognition Product specification Laying down qualifications for

potential

vendors Inviting proposals

DECISION MAKING PROCESSproposals Selecting the vendor Determination of order size/placement of order Review/feedback-repeat purchase Review/feedback Evaluating

INFLUENCES ON BUYING DECISIONS 1)Individual age,education,income Environmental factors-level factors-

of demand,economic outlook,interest rate Interpersonal -authority, status, empathy, persuasiveness 2)organizational variables-Objectives and variablesgoals,organisation policies,procedures

INFLUENCES ON BUYER BEHAVIOUR Cultural influences-values, ideas, influences Social influences Reference

attitudes

group grouppeers, relatives, neighbors, friends, word of mouth publicity by opinion leader Demographic influencesinfluences 1)agechild market,youth market,teenage 1)age market 2)income-low ,middle,higher middle,higher 2)income-

CULTURAL INFLUENCES

SELF CONCEPTdress,hair-style,table CONCEPTdress,hairmanners,credit cards,automobiles,ready-made cards,automobiles,readygarments,designer wares,cosmetics, PSYCHOGRAPHIC VARIABLES-[Arnold VARIABLESMitchell] 1)Survivors-despairing.depressed,with1)Survivors-despairing.depressed,with-drawn 2)Sustainers2)Sustainers-trying to get out of poverty 3)Belongers -conventional ,conservative, nostalgic, un-experimental, fit-in attitude unfit-

CULTURAL INFLUENCES 4)Emulators-ambitious 4)Emulators 5)Achievers-nations leaders,make 5)Achievers-

things happen,work within the system,enjoy good life 6)I-am-meyoung ,self engrossed,given 6)I-am-me to whim

CULTURAL INFLUENCES 7)Experimentials-pursue a 7)Experimentials-

rich innerinnerlife,experience directly what life has to offer 8)Societally conscious-have high sense of conscioussocial responsibility,want to improve conditions in society 9)Integrate-fully psychologically 9)Integratematured,combine best element of inner and outer directedness

TOOLS TO STUDY BUYER BEHAVIOUR SURVEYS-questionnaires, conscious SURVEYS-

response guarded and pre- judiced pre PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES-word TECHNIQUES-

association,picture association,thematic appreciation test FOCUS GROUP

DISCUSSIONS

ROLES IN ORGANISATIONAL BUYING CENTRE ACTUAL user-foreman,technician etc. user Influencerconsultants,panel Influencer

designers,architect. Decider Buyer Gate-keeperreceptionist,secretary Gate-keeper

DECISION MAKING PROCESSPROCESSHIGHHIGH-INVOLVEMENT PRODUCTS Need recognition/problem identification Development of

decision criteria Search for alternatives Evaluation of alternatives Decision

DECISION MAKING PROCESS-low PROCESSinvolvement products Problem/need recognition Evaluation of Decision

alternativ