353_35435_ME357_2011_1__2_1_2_Shaft Design.pdf

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Transcript of 353_35435_ME357_2011_1__2_1_2_Shaft Design.pdf
Shaft Design
Dr. Mostafa Rostom A. AtiaAssociate Prof.
1
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Loading modes
A shaft is a rotating member, usually of circular crosssection, used to transmit power or motion. It providesthe axis of rotation, or oscillation, of elements such asgears, pulleys, flywheels, cranks, sprockets, and thelike and controls the geometry of their motion.
An axle is a nonrotating member that carries notorque and is used to support rotating wheels, pulleys,and the like.
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Steps of Shaft Design
Material selection Geometric layout Stress and strength
Static strength Fatigue strength
Deflection and rigidity Bending deflection Torsional deflection Slope at bearings and shaftsupported elements Shear deflection due to transverse loading of short shafts
Vibration due to natural frequency
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Shaft Materials
Shafts can be made from low carbon, colddrawn or hotrolledsteel, such as ANSI 10201050 steels.
A good practice is to start with an inexpensive, low or mediumcarbon steel for the first time through the design calculations.
typical alloy steels for heat treatment include ANSI 134050,314050, 4140, 4340, 5140, and 8650.
Typical material choices for surface hardening include carburizinggrades of ANSI 1020, 4320, 4820, and 8620.
Cast iron may be specified if the production quantity is high, andthe gears are to be integrally cast with the shaft.
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Material for shafts
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Structure steel
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Material notes
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Material Notes
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Shaft Layout
The geometry of a shaft is generally that of a steppedcylinder
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Notes on Shaft Layout
Axial Layout of Components Supporting Axial Loads Providing for Torque Transmission
Keys Splines Setscrews Pins Press or shrink fits Tapered fits
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Bearing Arrangements
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Approximate shaft diameter
Power, KW 0.75 1.5 2.25 3 3.75 6 7.5 11.3 15 22.5 30 37.5 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 Speed, rpm Shaft Diameter, mm
60 45 55 60 65 65 75 80 85 95 105 110 115 120 130 140 145 150 155 160 170 80 45 50 55 60 60 70 75 80 85 95 105 110 115 120 130 135 140 145 150 155 100 40 50 50 55 60 65 70 75 85 90 100 105 110 115 120 130 135 135 140 145 120 40 45 50 55 55 65 65 75 80 85 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 140 35 45 50 50 55 60 65 70 75 85 90 95 100 105 115 120 120 125 130 135 160 35 40 45 50 55 60 60 70 75 80 85 90 95 105 110 115 120 120 125 130 180 35 40 45 50 50 55 60 65 70 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 120 125 200 35 40 45 50 50 55 60 65 70 75 85 85 90 100 105 110 110 115 120 120 250 35 40 40 45 50 55 55 60 65 70 80 85 85 95 100 100 105 110 115 115 300 30 35 40 45 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 100 105 110 110 400 30 35 40 40 45 50 50 55 60 65 70 75 75 85 85 90 95 100 100 105
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Shaft Static Stresses
Bending stress
Normal stress
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Shaft Static Stresses
Transverse shear stress
Torsion shear stress
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Shaft Static Stresses
Compound stress
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Example
The 15mm diameter solid steel is shaft shown in Figure. Twopulleys are keyed to the shaft where pulley B is of diameter400mm and pulley C is of diameter 800mm. Considering bendingand torsional stresses only, determine the locations andmagnitudes of the greatest stresses in the shaft.
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Ex. Cont.
𝑀𝑀 = �𝑀𝑀𝑦𝑦2 + 𝑀𝑀𝑧𝑧
2
𝜎𝜎 = 32 𝑀𝑀𝜋𝜋 𝑑𝑑3 =
32 × 82462𝜋𝜋 × 153 = 249 𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀 𝜏𝜏 =
16 𝑇𝑇𝜋𝜋 𝑑𝑑3 =
16 × 160000𝜋𝜋 × 153 = 241 𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀
𝜎𝜎𝑚𝑚𝑀𝑀𝑚𝑚 = 0.5 𝜎𝜎 + 0.5 �𝜎𝜎2 + 4 𝜏𝜏2 = 0.5 × 249 + 0.5 × �2492 + 4 × 2412 = 396 𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀
𝜏𝜏𝑚𝑚𝑀𝑀𝑚𝑚 = 0.5 �𝜎𝜎2 + 4 𝜏𝜏2 = 0.5 × �2492 + 4 × 2412 = 271 𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀
𝑀𝑀𝐶𝐶 = �(40000)2 + (40000)2 = 56569 𝑁𝑁𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 = �(20000)2 + (80000)2 = 82462 𝑁𝑁𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚
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Shaft dynamic stresses
Mm and Ma are the midrange and alternating bending moments, Tm and Ta are the midrange and alternating torques, Kf and Kfs are the fatigue stress concentration factors for bending and torsion
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Shaft dynamic stresses
VonMises maximum stress
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A 1050 HR steel has a mean ultimate tensile strength of Sut = 725 MPaand a mean yield strength of 415 MPa. The endurance limit is 362 MPa.This material is used to manufacture the shaft, which is shown in thefigure. The shaft has a fatigue stressconcentration factors kf = 1.66 andkfs = 1.63. The rotating shaft is subjected to bending moment of 145kNmm and the steady torsion moment is 125 kNmm.
Determine the fatigue factor of safety. Determine the yielding factor of safety.
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Answer
For a rotating shaft, the constant bending moment will create a completelyreversed bending stress. Ma = 145 kNmm Tm = 125 kNmm Mm = Ta = 0
Then: fatigue factor of safety n = 3.1
1𝑁𝑁
= 16
𝜋𝜋 × 303 �[4 × (1.66 × 145000)2]1/2
362+
[3 × (1.63 × 125000)2]1/2
725� = 0.323
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Sol. Cont.
For the yielding factor of safety, determine an equivalentvonMises maximum stress using
Factor of safety
𝜎𝜎𝑚𝑚𝑀𝑀𝑚𝑚′ = ��32 × 1.66 × 145000
𝜋𝜋 × 303 �2
+ 3 × �16 × 1.63 × 125000
𝜋𝜋 × 303 �2
�1/2
= 112.6 𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀
𝑛𝑛𝑦𝑦 = 𝑆𝑆𝑦𝑦𝜎𝜎𝑚𝑚𝑀𝑀𝑚𝑚′ =
415112.6
= 3.68
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Reducing Stress Concentration
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Deflection Considerations
Note:Check table A9 for shaft deflection calculations
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Deflection limits
Once deflections at various points have been determined, if any value is largerthan the allowable deflection at that point, a new diameter can be found from
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Shaft Critical Speeds due to its mass
When a shaft is turning, eccentricity causes a centrifugal forcedeflection, which is resisted by the shaft’s flexural rigidity E I .As long as deflections are small, no harm is done.
Critical speeds: at certain speeds the shaft is unstable, withdeflections increasing without upper bound.
When geometry is simple, as in a shaft of uniform diameter,simply supported, the task is easy. where m is the mass per unit length A the crosssectional area γ the specific weight
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Shaft Critical Speeds due to deflection
Calculate the influence factor at each load (simple support x=a)
Calculate the influence factor at mid point
Calculate the Equivalent loads
Calculate the Critical speed
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First Shaft Critical Speeds
The First Shaft Critical Speed W1 combines the effect ofthe shaft mass and the deflection due to loads on the shaft