3 WCDMA RNP Fundamental ISSUE1.0.ppt

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    Huawei Confidential. All Rights Reserved

    OWJ100001 WCDMA RNP

    FundamentalISSUE 1.0

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    Internal Use2

    Course Objective

    Familiarization with radio wave propagation,

    principle and preparation for the

    subsequent link budget.

    Introduction on Antenna key parameters

    Understand RF basics, typical components

    and instruments for use of wireless

    network planning and optimization.

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    Internal Use3

    Chapter 1 Radio Wave Introduction

    Chapter 2 Antenna

    Chapter 3 RF Basics

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    Chapter 1 Radio Wave Introduction

    1.1 Basic principles of radio wave

    1.2 Propagation features of radio wave

    1.3 Propagation model of radio wave

    1.4 Correction of propagation model of

    radio wave

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    Internal Use5

    Radio Wave Spectrum

    The frequencies in each specific band present unique propagation features.

    300-3000GHz

    EHFExtremely High

    Frequency

    30-300GHz

    SHFSuper High Frequency3-30GHz

    UHFUltra High Frequency300-3000MHz

    VHFVery High Frequency30-300MHz

    HFHigh Frequency3-30MHz

    MFMedium Frequency300-3000KHzLFLow Frequency30-300KHz

    VLFVery-low Frequency3-30KHz

    VFVoice Frequency300-3000Hz

    ELFExtremely Low

    Frequency

    30-300Hz

    3-30Hz DesignationClassificationFrequency

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    Propagation of Electromagnetic Wave

    As radio wave propagates in the air, the electric field direction changes

    regularly. This phenomenon is known as polarization of radio wave. The

    electric field direction of radio wave is known as radio wave polarizationdirection.

    Electric field direction of radio wave vertical to the ground: Vertical

    polarization wave.

    Electric field direction of radio wave parallel with the ground:

    Horizontal polarization wave.

    electric wave transmission direction

    Electric FieldElectric Field

    Magnetic FieldMagnetic Field

    Electric Field

    Dipole

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    Perpendicular incidence wave

    and ground refraction wave(most common propagation modes)

    Troposphere reflection wave

    (the propagation is very random)

    Mountain diffraction wave

    (shadow area signal source)

    Ionosphere refraction wave

    (beyond-the-horizon communication path)

    Propagation Path

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    Building reflection waveDiffraction wave Direct waveGround reflection wave

    Propagation Path

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    Chapter 1 Radio Wave Introduction

    1.1 Basic principles of radio wave

    1.2 Propagation features of radio wave

    1.3 Propagation model of radio wave

    1.4 Correction of propagation model of

    radio wave

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    Radio Propagation Environment

    Radio wave propagation is affected by topographic structure

    and man-made environment. The radio propagation environment determine the selection of

    propagation models. Main factors that affect environment are:

    Natural landform (mountain, hill, plains, water area)

    Density, layout and material features of buildings Natural and man-made electromagnetic noise conditions

    Weather conditions

    Vegetation features of the region

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    Quasi-smooth landform

    The landform with a slightly rugged surface and the

    surface height difference is less than 20m

    Irregular landform

    The landforms apart from quasi-smooth landform

    are divided to: hill landform, isolated hills, slant

    landform, and land & water combined landform.

    R

    T

    T

    R

    Landform Categories

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    distance(m)

    Receiving power(dBm)

    10 20 30

    -20

    -40

    -60

    slow fading

    fast fading

    Signal Fading

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    Measures against fast fading--Diversity

    Signal Diversity

    Time diversity Symbol interleaving, error check, error correction code, RAKE receiver

    technology.

    Space diversity Signals are received by means of main antenna and diversity antenna.

    The receiving signals of the main/diversity antenna do not have the

    feature of simultaneous fading. The BTS receivers capability of

    balancing the signals of different delays in a certain time range is also a

    mode of space diversity.

    Frequency diversity GSM adopts frequency hop technology

    CDMA adopts frequency-spreading technology

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    Solution RAKE technology

    Radio Wave Delay Extension

    Deriving from reflection, it refers to the co-frequency interference

    caused by the time difference in the space transmission of main

    signals and other multi-path signals received by the receiver.

    The transmitting signals come from the objects far away from the

    receiving antenna.

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    T

    R

    Diffraction Loss

    The electromagnetic wave diffuses around

    at the diffraction point.

    The diffraction wave covers all directions

    except the obstacle.

    The diffusion loss is most severe

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    0 0 0 0

    Dw1 w2

    E1

    E2

    XdBmWdBm

    Penetration loss=X-W=B dB Reflection and diffraction ofelectromagnetic wave penetrating the wall

    Penetration Loss (1)

    Indoor signals depend on the penetration loss of the buildings.

    The signal at the window is very different from the signal in the middle

    of the room. The material of the building largely affects the penetration loss.

    The incidence angle of the electromagnetic wave affects the

    penetration loss considerably.

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    Penetration Loss (2)

    Penetration loss caused by

    obstructions: Wall obstruction 520dB Floor obstruction 20dB Indoor loss value is the function of the floor

    number : -1.9dB/floor Obstruction of furniture and other

    obstacles: 215dB Thick glass 610dB Penetration loss of train carriage is

    1530dB Penetration loss of lift is 30dB Dense tree leaves loss10dB

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    Chapter 1 Radio Wave Introduction

    1.1 Basic principles of radio wave

    1.2 Propagation features of radio wave

    1.3 Propagation model of radio wave

    1.4 Correction of propagation model of

    radio wave

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    Typical Propagation Models

    Free air space model Flat landform propagation model

    Okumura/Hata model

    COST231-Hata model

    COST231 Walfish-Ikegami model

    Keenan-Motley model

    Computer-aided computing model

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    Lo = 91.48 + 20logd, for f = 900MHz

    Lo = 97.98 + 20logd, for f = 1900MHz

    Lo = 99 + 20logd, for f = 2100MHz

    Free Air Space Model

    This model applicable is a theoretic model. This environment does not

    exist in real life.

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    Ploss= L0 + 10logd- 20loghb- 20loghmWhere

    = 4 , path loss gradient

    hbBTS antenna height

    hm mobile station height

    L0parameters related to frequency

    When BTS antenna height is doubled, the path

    loss will be compensated for by 6dB.

    R

    T

    Flat Landform Propagation Model

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    Applicable Scope

    Frequency range f : 150~1500MHz

    BTS antenna height Hb : 30~200m

    Mobile station height Hm: 1~10m

    Distance d : 1~20km

    Okumura-Hata Model

    Macro cell model The BTS antenna is taller than the

    surrounding buildings Predication is not applicable in 1km Not applicable to the circumstance where

    the frequency is above 1500MHz

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    Lu=69.55 + 26.16logf - 13.82loghb+(44.9 -65.5loghb)logd - a(Hm)

    Okumura-Hata Model

    Urban (medium and small cities) :

    a (Hm) = [1.1*log(f) - 0.7]*Hm - [1.56*log(f) - 0.8]

    Dense urban (big cities):

    a (Hm) = 8.29*[log(1.54*Hm)]2 - 1.1for f = 400 MHz

    Suburban:

    Lsu (dB) = Lu - 2*[log(f/28)]2-5.4

    Rural area (quasi open area):

    Lrqo (dB) = Lu - 4.78*[log(f)]2 + 18.33*log(f)-35.94

    Rural areas (open area):

    Lro (dB) = Lu - 4.78*[log(f)]2+18.33*log(f)-40.94

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