265045 65A5A Gabi Duigu Preparing for Ielts Visuals Academic Writing Task

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Transcript of 265045 65A5A Gabi Duigu Preparing for Ielts Visuals Academic Writing Task

VisualsGRAPHS, ABOUT WRITING AN TABLES D DIAGRAMS

Gabi Duigu

@ Gabi Duigu 2001 All rights reserved Published by Academic English Press 9/13 Armstrong Street Cammeray NS\f 2062 Australia

Ph:02 94376330email:g.duigu@unsw.edu.au

Distributedby: Melting Pot Press 10 GraftonStreet NS\( 2008 Chippendale Australia Ph: (5r) 29212 1882 F a x : 0 2 2 1 11 8 6 8 9 email:books@elt.com.au

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Part1t. The Purpose GraphsandTables of .. .. .. .2

Part 22. \WritingaboutGraphsandThbles 2 . 1 \ W r i t i n g t hI e t r o d u c t i o n n 2.2 TimeExpressions 2.3 Expressions Measurement of ......9 ......10 .......13 . . . .15

Part33. \TritingtheReport 3.1 Contrast.... 3.2 Tiends 3.3 Correlations ......25 ...,.25 ......32 ......35

Part44. Using the Right sryle . 4.1 Modifiers 4.2 Using the CorrectSryleand Avoiding Errors . . . .39 ...39 . . .48

Part55. Diagrams 5.1 VocabularyandGrammar 5 . 2 U s i n g a g o o d s r y.l e AnswerK"y.. ...55 ......55 ......56 ...59

\With thanks to Maryanne Sheafor making the book possible,and for her enduring patience and encouragement.

Many of the graphs and tables in this book are basedon visualsfrom various issuesof the UNESCO Courier, to which very worthwhile publication grateful acknowledgment is made.

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lntroductionand OverviewThere are Many books exist that are guides to academicwriting for native speakers. Of also a number for non-native speakers. these,quite a few deal with the use of graphs, tablesand other visuals.However, they normally explain how to insert or use thesevisuals to make your work more interesting and easyto understand.They do not usually explain how to write about thesevisual aids. The primary purpose of this book is to help you with the \Writing Thsk I of the it IELIS Academic test. Howevet because attempts to deal with the language way, you may find that much of the information it contains required in a systematic could be useful to you later during your studies,if you ever need to use graphs, tablesor the like in your work. So perhapsyou should not give the book away as soon as you have passedyour IELIS.)i()K)K)t()K

'Writing Thsk 1, it is In order to write about visuals,as required in IELIS Academic necessary understand what to write, as well as ltotl to write it. The first section of to this book therefore beginswith a discussionabout the main purpose and featuresof to graphs, tablesand other visuals,and provides exercises practiseidenti$'ing these correctly. The later sections then go on to deal with the languagerequired to write about them. There are vocabulary lists, explanationsabout meaning and grammar, and There is also an Answer Key, and model answersare provided, so that the exercises. book can be used for self-studyas well as class-roomuse.

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Writing Tables and Diagrams Visuals: about Graphs,

Since most of the IELTS Academic \Writing Thsk 1 questions deal with graphs and rables,and since they require specific interpretation and writing conyentions,we will first focus on these.

A Note on terminology: The IELIS Handbook mentions diagrams and tables. Clearly this includes graphs (the most common visual used in \Writing Task 1) under diagrams. Other books talk about visuals to cover all of these.Youdo not need to worry about this as the label is usually given in the introduction to the task and you can simply use the sameword in your answer.

of 1. ThePurpose Graphsand Tablesto In order to know how to do something properly, it is necessary understand the parpose of that thing. tWe actually need to know two things: a) the purpose of using graphs and tables;and b) the purpose of utriting about the graphs and tables that have been used. \Wewill deal with the first one first.

1.1Using Graphs and Tables1 TASK'Which of the following statements do you think best describe the purpose of providing graphs and tables in an academic text? a) to explain what is in the txt in a different way b) to provide information which is additional to that provided in the text c) to make it easierto understand the conceptsby using a visual rather than by just using words d) to give an overview or an impression or a summary e) to provide more exact details than is desirablein the text rc Answer Key

Visuals: Writing Tables about Graphs, and Diagrams

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1.2 Writingabout Graphsand TablesIn real life, the text usually comesfrst, and the graph or table is added to support the text. In fact, most books that adviseon writing, explain how to use graphs or tables to illustrate the words more cleady. However, in IELTS the reverseoccurs you are given the graph, table or diagram and must supply the words. In Thsk 1 candidatesare askedto look at a diagram or table, and to present the information in their own words. Depending on the type of input and the task on suggested, candidatesare assessed their abiliry to: r organise, present and possibly compare data .describe the stagesofa processor procedure .describe an object or event or sequenceofevents . explain how something works IELTS Handbooh, 1999

Note that the first of theseis the most common task found in the Test, and the one we are dealine with now

TASK 2.\(zhich of the following do you think best describes the purpose of writing about graphs and tables (in real academic writing)? a) to explain what is in the graph or table in a different way which makes it easierto understand b) to give exactly the same information in words, in order to emphasiseit c) to expand on what is in the graph or table by giving additional explanations about the reasonsetc. of d) to draw attention to the most important aspcts the information shown in the graph or table. tc Ansuter Ke!

Tables and Diagrams Writing about Graphs, Visuals:

the 1.3 Understanding PurposeTASK3.Look at the following graph and the descriptions given underneath, and decide which one is the most suitable. Try to explain why you think so.

Growth Rates Annual Urban Average ltsto-tsT--l 1995-2000 ffiil 2020-2025

Asia

Europe

North Latin America America

annualurban groluth rate of 5 continentsfrom 1970 a) This gdph showsthe auerage annual urban groutth to 2025. According to the graph, Africa had about 5o/oauerage annual urban grozuthrate in 1995 and in 2025 rate in 1970 and ouer 4%oauerage to annual urban grou.tthrate is expected bejust ouer3o/o.For Asia the the auerage annual urban groutth rate wasjust ouer3o/o in 1970 and 1995 and it utas auerage annual urban to expected be about 2o/oin 2025. In Europe, by contrast,tlte auerage groutth rat was only about 1.5% in 1970 and it went down to about 0.5o/oin annual 1995, and in 2025 it utill be lessthan 0.2o/o.In Latin America tlte auerage urban groutth rate utentfrom just under 4o/oin 1970 to just ouer2%oin 1995 and it annual urban tuill probably bejust ouer 1o/oin 2025. In North America the auerage groluth rAte uAs about 1o/oin 1970 and 1995 and is ffiPectedto stay tlte samein 2025. b) Looking at the graph lae cdn seethat urban {ouath has happenedon all 5 to continentssince 1970 and that it is expected continue right up to 2025. The most tbesecontinentshaue dramatic grouth is in Africa, Asia and Latin America, becAuse and industrialisation since 1970, while Europe and the experienced most deuelopment they already started being more probably because North America show lessincrease are urbanised. In deuelopingcountriesmary)peoplefom the countrytside attrdcted t0 the cities to loohfor u,,orhand better opportunities in heahh and education, but this rapid urbanisation is causingmany problems and needsto be connolled.

Visuals:Writing about Graphs, Tablesand Diagrams

urban grotuth in all 5 that since 1970 there has beenconsiderable ) The graph shou,,s to continentspresented and that this trend is expected continue at least until2025. Houteuer,the ratefor eaclt continent ltas not beentlte same. The deuelopingcounnies of Afica, Asia and Latin America experiencedtlte most dramatic growth rates in 1975, with Afica hauing around 5o/oPer Annum, Latin America just ouer 4%oand Asia ouer3o/o. In 1995 theseratesdeneasedto just ouer 4o/oin Afica and doun to about 2o/o for Latin Anterica, but Asia remained tlte same. This grouth rate is by expected decrease about 1% for all three continentsbjt the year 2025. to p.a. ouer the to Mennuthile North America is expected maintain its groutth rate of 1o/o entire period, tahile Europe, hauing started theperiod at about 1.5o/ogrowth rate is to expected reducethis to only about 2% by 2025. a Ansuer Ke!

and Tables typesof Graphs different 1.4 Understanding\7e now need to look more closelyat what graphs and tablesshow, and the differencesberween them. a) 'What features do the following graphs have in common?1950 World MeatProduction, - 90Million Tons

in Consumption China Cigarettebillions:

2000t Pork

1500 40 30 20 't0 0

-ta .---'-+/ R..,.8' F-.:::--.ts_+ .A'

,.a(1980

a Beef/Buffalo u Poultry

/

1950

1960

1970

1990

b) Vhat features do the following graphs have in common? How are they different from the previous ones?Percentage distributionof Internet-connected of July by of computers, income countlies, 1999

Waste1999 HouseholdPaper & 21% Carboard Food& Garden Materials 46%

High-income countries 95.1 =Plastic 8% Midd