235711335 Ethnography

of 20

  • date post

    21-Feb-2018
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    214
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of 235711335 Ethnography

  • 7/24/2019 235711335 Ethnography

    1/20

    GROUP #2

  • 7/24/2019 235711335 Ethnography

    2/20

    Why do some cultures expect their daughters tomarry before the age of 15?

    How does a person's specific family valuesimpact the way he or she acts in public withfriends?

    What are the origins of bullying in an all-male

    classroom?

    WhyEthnography?

  • 7/24/2019 235711335 Ethnography

    3/20

    These are complicated questions that cannot be

    answered through a simple survey or other quantitativeresearch design method. These and similar questions

    are best answered through qualitative research methods

    o collecting! analy"ing! and interpreting observed

    inormation

  • 7/24/2019 235711335 Ethnography

    4/20

    very brie history o $thnography

    Theterm originatesrom %&th'century

    (estern anthropology! typically used to

    reer to the descriptive study o a culture

    outside the West!elebrated early proponentwas

    )ronislaw *alinows+i ,%--'%&2/! o

    the 20th'century1s most famous

    anthropologistsThe goal o ethnography is to grasp

    the native1s point'o'view! his relation to

    lie! to reali"e his vision o his world3

    ,rgonauts o the (estern Paciic/.

  • 7/24/2019 235711335 Ethnography

    5/20

  • 7/24/2019 235711335 Ethnography

    6/20

    "thnography #from $ree% &() ethnos*fol%+people+ nation* and ,./0 grapho* write*2is

    the systematic study of peoples and cultures t

    is designed to explore cultural phenomena

    where the researcher observes society from

    the point of view of the sub3ect of the study 4n

    ethnography is a means to represent

    graphically and in writing the cultureofagroup

  • 7/24/2019 235711335 Ethnography

    7/20

    *When used as a method+ ethnography typically

    refers to fieldwor% #alternatively+ participant-observation2 conducted by a single investigator

    who 'lives with and lives li%e' those who are

    studied+usually for a year or more* --ohn 6an

    7aanen+ 1889

  • 7/24/2019 235711335 Ethnography

    8/20

    *"thnography literally means 'a portrait of

    a people' 4n ethnography is a writtendescription of a particular culture- the

    customs+ beliefs+ and behavior- based on

    information collected through fieldwor%*

    --7arvin Harris and :rna ohnson+ ;

  • 7/24/2019 235711335 Ethnography

    9/20

    *"thnography is the art andscience ofdescribing a group or culture The description

    may be of a small tribal group in an exotic land

    or a classroom in middle-class suburbia* --=avid

    7 >etterman+ 188

  • 7/24/2019 235711335 Ethnography

    10/20

    "thnography may be defined as both a

    @ualitative research process or method

    #one conducts an ethnography2 and

    product #the outcomeof this process is anethnography2 whose aim is cultural

    interpretation

  • 7/24/2019 235711335 Ethnography

    11/20

    The ethnographer goes beyond reporting

    events and details of experience

    Apecifically+ he or see attempts to explainhow these represent what we might call

    *webs of meaning* #$eertB again2+ the

    cultural constructions+ in which we live

  • 7/24/2019 235711335 Ethnography

    12/20

    METHODOLOGICAL

    PRINCIPLES

  • 7/24/2019 235711335 Ethnography

    13/20

    1 Caturalism

    This is the view that the aim of socialresearch is to capture the characterof

    naturally occurring human behavior+ and

    that this can only be achieved by first-

    hand contact with it+ not by inferences

    from what people do in artificial settingsli%e experiments or from what they say in

    interviewsabout what they do elsewhere

  • 7/24/2019 235711335 Ethnography

    14/20

    ; Dnderstanding

    !entral here is the argument that human

    actions differ from the behavior of physicalob3ects+ and even from that of other animalsE

    they do not consist simply of fixed responses

    or even of learned responses to stimuli+ but

    involve interpretation of stimuli and theconstruction of responses

  • 7/24/2019 235711335 Ethnography

    15/20

    3. Discovery.

    Another e!t"re o ethno#r!$hicthin%in# is ! conce$tion o therese!rch $rocess !sin&"ctive or&iscovery'(!se&) r!ther th!n !s(ein# *i+ite& to the testin# oe,$*icit hy$otheses.

  • 7/24/2019 235711335 Ethnography

    16/20

    n terms of method+ generally spea%ing+ the term*ethnography* refers to social research that has

    most of the following features#7 Hammersley+

    188

  • 7/24/2019 235711335 Ethnography

    17/20

    #a2 Geople's behavior is studied in

    everyday contexts+ rather thanunderexperimental conditions created by theresearcher

    #b2 =ata are gathered from a range ofsources+ but observation andIor

    relatively informal conversations areusually the main ones

    #c2 The approach to data collection is*unstructured in the sense that it does

    not involve following through a detailedplan set up at the beginningJ nor are thecategories used for interpreting whatpeople say and do pre-given or fixed

  • 7/24/2019 235711335 Ethnography

    18/20

    #d2 The focus is usually a single setting orgroup+ of relatively small scale n life

    history research the focus may even be a

    single individual

    #e2 The analysis of the data involvesinterpretation of the meanings and

    functions of human actions and mainly

    ta%es the form of verbal descriptions and

    explanations+ with @uantification and

    statistical analysis playing a subordinate

    role at most

  • 7/24/2019 235711335 Ethnography

    19/20

    THAN- O/ 0OR LISTENING 12

  • 7/24/2019 235711335 Ethnography

    20/20