2017 PhRELCSFI National-Seminar Workshop · PDF file2017 PhRELCSFI National-Seminar Workshop...

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  • 2017 PhRELCSFI National-Seminar Workshop

    ELTA in the ASEAN context: Current trends, new perspectives

    and recent innovations

    Dr Alvin PangSEAMEO RELC, Singapore

  • Presentation Outline

    Instructional designs of English language teaching and assessment (ELTA)

    A brief history of ELTA Methods of ELTA Innovative approaches to ELTA Ten current trends and changing perspectives of


  • Instructional designs for language teaching

    Theory of language


    Theory of learning

    Learning objectives

    The syllabus

    Teacher & learner roles


    Method (prescribed objectives)

  • A brief history of ELT

    Theory of Language and/or Learning


    Lexical Approach

    Task Based Learning

    Communicative Language Teaching

    Total Physical Response

    The Silent Way


    Audio Lingualism

    Direct Method

    Grammar Translation

    Informed Eclecticism(postmethod era)

    Sociocultural Learning; Constructivism (1980s -2000s)

    Primarily structural(up till 1900s)

    Community Language Learning

    Behavioural (1940s-60s)

    Generative Linguistics ; Cognitive Psychology (1970s)

    Changing winds and shifting sands of language teaching. (Brown, 1994:52)

    Second Language Acquisition Tradition (1970s-80s)

    Humanistic Approach (affective) 1970s-80s)


  • In the ASEAN context

    Which methods and approaches still prevail? Which are widely embraced?

  • Grammar Translation The Direct Method Audio Lingualism

    Focus Writing Reading Structure

    Classroom activities Translation (reading

    and writing) Analysis of language

    structure (grammar)

    Focus No translation in L1 Dialogues using a

    modern conversational style in target language

    Classroom activities Consist of series of

    questions based on the dialogue or an anecdotal narrative

    Grammar taught inductively

    Dictation Tr reads passage three times

    Focus Listening Speaking Drill exercises Classroom activities

    Listening to recordings Repetition to

    phrases/sentences Substitution exercises

  • Total Physical Response (TPR) method

    Body Spell these words:

    leg, quit, japan,

    High : l, h

    Middle: e, u, i, a, n

    Down: g, q, j

    Now, lets body spell these words:






    Focus Using physical movement

    to react to verbal input Classroom activities

    Listening vocabulary connected with actions

    Classroom language (open your book)


  • Community Language Learning method

    Community Language Learning

    Focus Teacher acts as counsellor and

    paraphraser Emphasizes sense of community in

    learning group ; learner-focused On fluency in early stages

    Classroom activities Reflection Recorded conversation Discussion Transcription Language analysis

    A new wave of CLL (online communities)E.g. English,baby! and Duo lingo (Web 2.0) drawing on info sharing & collaboration tools

  • The Silent Way method

    The Silent Way

    Focus Teacher uses mixture of silence

    and gesture to focus students attention, to elicit their responses, and to encourage them to correct their own errors

    Uses structural syllabus and concentrates on teaching a small number of functional words

    Classroom activities Use sound-colour chart to teach

    language sounds Use colored word charts or rods

    for work on sentences

  • Suggestopedia

    Suggestopedia Focus

    Learning is facilitated by a relaxed enivronment

    Use of music, songs or art to create relaxed state in the learner and to promote positive suggestion

    Classroom activities Concert reading employs a classical music

    piece (e.g. a Beethoven symphony). The rhythm and intonation of the reading would be exaggerated in order to fit in with the rhythm of the music

    Choose a background music that will give an impression that SS are in a forest. SS are asked to close their eyes and imagine that they are animals, birds, trees, etc.

  • A Major Recognized Approach

    Communicative Language Teaching


    Meaningful tasks

    Authentic communication in all skills (primarily speaking)

    Develop communicative competence (Hymes, 1972)

    Classroom activities

    More fluency than accuracy activities

    Meaningful and communicative practice (information gap, information gathering, role plays, opinion sharing, interviews, etc.)

    Pair and group practice activities

  • Communicative Competence

    Linguistic Competence

    Strategic Competence

    Discourse Competence

    Sociolinguistic Competence

    Lexical items Morphology Syntax Semantics Phonology- stress, rhythm, etc

    Socio-cultural knowledge and rules Understanding social context Registers

    Verbal/nonverbal strategies to compensate for breakdowns due to performance variables or insufficient competence

    Genre knowledge Discourse knowledge Speech Acts, functions Ability of connecting sentences Inter-sentential relationships

  • CLT activities

    Pair activity: Pet peeves

    A pet peeve is an annoying thing that someone does. Define the context.

    With a partner, take turns to describe what bothers you and how you react.

    Alphabet DialogueCreate a paired dialogue so that each line begins with the next letter of the alphabet. e.g.: A, B, C, D, E Ahmed, how are you? Bad, really bad! Come on, it can't be that bad! Do you think I'm joking? Everyone knows you're a joker.Try this: G H I J K L

    From Letters to GrammarGiven: A D I F , students might produce: A day in France Fantastic dreams are incredible I ate David's fruit

    Students think of the vocabulary first and then the grammar they need to make a phrase. It becomes easier for students as they do more examples.

    Try this: A E Y H

  • Innovative approaches

    Task-based approach


    The lexical approach





  • Competency-based Language Teaching (CBLT)

    Focus on what learners are expected to do with the language andwhat they can do rather than what they know

    An outcome-based approach

    Criterion-referenced assessment

    Competencies: skills, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors requiredfor effective performance of a real-world task or activity

    Focus on successful functioning in society and on life skills

    Active learning

    Real world application

    Competency based assessment (task or performance-centred)

  • CBLT

    Competency based courses built around skills needed to carry outspecified tasks (e.g. Functional English)

    If the competency is giving personal information, then tasks mustrequire Ss to use knowledge about self to produce such information

    CBLT exercises Systematic there is a specific goal

    Repetitive Ss learn by doing, not by memorizing the rules, so repetition is essential

    Measurable If a student has grasped the lesson and can apply the new skill, then it was successful. Have Ss actively demonstrate each new skill

  • Pre-task

    Tr gives clear instructions

    Tr helps students recall some useful language

    Tr plays a recording or shows a video

    Students take notes and start preparation

    Task Cycle

    Tr sets pair or group work

    Tr sets a time for completing the task

    Students give a report or students exchange written reports and compare results

    Analysis & Practice

    Tr highlights relevant parts from the text to analyze

    Tr asks students to notice interesting text

    Tr highlights the language for analysis

    Tr conducts practice of new language

    Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

  • The Lexical Approach

    Classroom activities

    Teachers role task, planning, report

    Making students aware of collocations

    Students observe, classify and make generalizations (observe-hypothesis-experiment as opposed to PPP)

    Teachers help learners discover knowledge instead of giving it directly

    Features Lexis is basis of language Lexical chunks (e.g. in my opinion,

    at the end of the day) Language consists of

    grammaticalized lexis, not lexicalized grammar (Michael Lewis, 1993)

    Without grammar, little can be conveyed; without vocabulary, nothing can be conveyed. (David Wilkinson)

  • The Lexical Approach Binomials Fork and spoon

    TrinomialsStrike while the iron is hot

    CollocationsAs cool as cucumber

    Idioms Guess what

    SimilesCool, calm and collected

    Connectives Open secret

    Conversational gambits On the contrary

  • Types of standards

    Content standards

    Statements about what learners should know and be able to do with content

    Performance standards

    Show how learners have achieved the standards targeted

    How learners are meeting a standard

    Show the learners progress towards meeting a standard

    Proficiency standards

    Tell us how well learners should perform

  • State of English in PH: Should we beconcerned?By: Mike Cabigon - @inquirerdotnet

    Philippine Daily Inquirer / 01:26 AM November 14, 2015

    The Philippines is recognized globally as one of the largest English-speaking nations, with the majority of its population having at leastsome degree of fluency in the language.

    Proficiency in the language is also one of the Philippines strengths,which has helped dr