2016/17 Dry Run Creek Geomorphological Watershed 2016/17 Dry Run Creek Geomorphological Watershed...

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Transcript of 2016/17 Dry Run Creek Geomorphological Watershed 2016/17 Dry Run Creek Geomorphological Watershed...

  • 2016/17 Dry Run Creek Geomorphological

    Watershed Assessment

    University of Northern Iowa Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences

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    Project Coordinator: Dr. Chad Heinzel Principle Undergraduate Investigators: Christopher Baish - UNI, Dept. of Geography Tyler Dursky - UNI, Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sci. Danika Patten - UNI, Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sci. Andy Thompson - UNI, Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sci. Geomorphology Student Scientists: Hawra Algazwi Kayla Beck Blake Borchers Hannah Dietz Jordan Evans Heather Hammersley Mitchell Koellner Logan LeTellier Riley McMorran Bobbi Minard Grant Olberding Terra Perez Dustin Roberts Eliza Ross Nolan Sagan Ally Standefer Kyle Trilk Acknowledgements – Many thanks to the University of Northern Iowa Conservation Corps (Eric Giddens and Kamyar Enshayan) funded by the Roy J. Carver Charitable Trust; Josh Balk and the Dry Run Creek Advisory Board; and the Departments of Geography and Earth and Environmental Sciences (especially John Degroote and Siobahn Morgan).

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    Table of Contents 1. Project Members…………………………………………………………………..…….1 2. Introduction………………………………..………………………………………………..…….4

    2.1 Hydrology………………………………………………………………………………..…...5 2.2 Geology 2.2.1 Bedrock Geology……………………………………………………………........8 2.2.2Surficial Geology …...…………………………………………………………......8 2.2.3 Soils……………………………………………………………………………….14 2.3 Climatology………………………………………………………………………….……... 16 2.4 Ecology………………………………………………………………………………….......19 2.5 Population……………………………………………………………………………..........20 2.6 Land use……………………………………………………………………………………. 20 3. Methodology 3.1 Field………………………………………………………………………………………….23 3.2 Lab……………………………………………………………………………………..........23 4. 2016 Dry Run Creek Results 4.1 Geomorphic Field Survey…………….………………………………………….……......28

    4.2 Morphometric Analysis………………………………………………………………….....45 4.3 Particle Size Analysis ……………………………………………………………………..52

    5. Discussion and Recommendations…………………………………………………………....53 6. References……………………………………………………………………………............... 60 7. Appendix A. Urban footprint 1930 to 2017…………………………………………………………..…. 62 B. Morphometric raw values for the Dry Run Creek Watershed ………………………… 66 C. Additional photos ………………………………………………………………………… 68 LIST OF TABLES 1. Parent materials and soils of the Dry Run Creek Watershed …………………………….. 14 2. Rural versus urban development from 1930 to 2016 in the DRC Watershed ………….. 21 3. Stream assessment worksheet used for the Dry Run Creek ……………………………… 24 4. Particle-size group ranges …………………………………………………………………….. 26 5. Categories of silt and sand-sized sieve sizes used ………………………………………… 28 6. Representative particle-size analysis …………………………………….………………….. 52 7. 2005 DRC Summary Analysis (at 205 site locations) ……………………………………….56 8. 2016/17 DRC Summary Analysis (at 365 site locations) …………………………………. 56

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    LIST of FIGURES 1. Location of the Dry Run Creek Watershed …………………………………………………... 4 2. Hourly precipitation on Dry Run Creek Site 7, Sept. 22-23, 2016………………………….. 6 3. Hourly precipitation versus depth on DRC, Site 7, Sept. 22-23, 2016………………...…... 6 4. DRC, Site 7, Nitrate levels……………………………………………………………………… 7 5. Bedrock geology map of the Dry Run Creek Watershed………………………………….… 9 6. Landform regions of Iowa ……………………………………………………………………….10 7. Surficial geology of the Dry Run Creek Watershed………………………………………….. 13 8. Soil map of the Dry Run Creek Watershed…………………………………………………….15 9. Average temperatures for Cedar Falls, Iowa ………………………………………………….17 10. Average precipitation for Cedar Falls, Iowa ………………………………………………….17 11. Average humidity for Cedar Falls, Iowa …………………………………………………….. 18 12. Average snowfall for Cedar Falls, Iowa …………………………………………………….. 18 13. Endangered species of Black Hawk, County……………………………………………….. 19 14. Population over time, Cedar Falls, Iowa ……………………………………………………. 20 15. Cedar Falls city boundaries from 1930 to present ……………………………………….. 22 16. Sample sites for the 2018 Dry Run Creek study (n = 365) ……………………………….. 29 17. Land-use variability for DRC’s left-bank ……………………………………………………. 30 18. Land-use variability for the right bank of DRC ……………………………………………… 31 19. Map of left-bank land-use ……………………………………………………………………. 32 20. Map of right-bank land-use …………………………………………………………………… 33 21. Variability of canopy cover along Dry Run Creek ………………………………………….. 34 22. Map of canopy cover ………………………………………………………………………….. 35 23. Substrate/bed load variability of Dry Run Creek …………………………………………… 36 24. Bank stability along Dry Run Creek …………………………………………………………. 37 25. Map showing the bank stability of Dry Run Creek …………………………………………. 38 26. In-stream habitat percentages for Dry Run Creek …………………………………………. 39 27. Bank material (sediment) for Dry Run Creek ……………………………………………….. 40 28. Average bank height percentages for Dry Run Creek …………………………………….. 41 29. Map of DRC bank heights ……………………………………………………………………. 42 30. Hydraulic variability percentages of DRC ………………………………………...………… 43 31. Map characterizing the hydraulic variability of Dry Run Creek ……………………………. 44 32. Delineated stream orders used for the DRC Morphometric Analysis………………………46 33. Delineated stream order drainages for DRC …………………………………………………47 34. Map locations for UNI sites 1, 2 and 3 ………………………………………………………..48 35. UNI site one stream geometry …………………………………………………………………49 36. UNI site two stream geometry ………………………………………………………………... 49 37. UNI site three stream geometry ……………………………………………………………… 50 38. Stream widths for UNI Site 1, 2 and 3 with the R2 values ………………………………… 50 39. Average bank height (Site 1, 2 and 3) with the R2 value………………………………….. 51 40. Average stream depths (Site 1, 2 and 3) with R2 value …………………………………… 51 41. LIDAR representation of Dry Run Creek…………………………………………………….. 54 42. The progressive urbanization of the Dry Run Creek Watershed ……………………….... 55 43. Photographs exhibiting urban (left) and agriculutre (right) stream health ………………. 57 44. Photograph examples of what this point source runoff……………………………………. 58 45. Photographs of a retention pond ……………………………………………………………..58 46. Photograph examples of stream bank stabilization ……………………………………..… 59

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    2. INTRODUCTION

    Dry Run Creek (DRC) watershed is a primary drainage basin located in

    northwestern Black Hawk County (Figure 1). It is fed predominantly by agricultural

    runoff in its upper reaches, and becomes heavily urbanized as it travels through the city

    of Cedar Falls, before draining into the Cedar River. The stream is perennial, however

    some are tiled and new segments have developed both naturally and artificially. R