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    copyright 2013 La scuola di Pitagora editriceVia Monte di Dio, 5480132 NapoliTelefono e Fax +39 081 7646814

    assolutamente vietata la riproduzione totale o parziale diquesta pubblicazione, cos come la sua trasmissione sottoqualsiasi forma e con qualunque mezzo, anche attraversofotocopie, senza lautorizzazione scritta delleditore.

    www.scuoladipitagora.itinfo@scuoladipitagora.it

    ISBN 978-88-6542-290-8

    Carmine Gambardella (a cura di)HERITAGE ARCHITECTURE LANDESIGNfocus on CONSERVATION REGENERATION INNOVATION

    Le vie dei MercantiXI Forum Internazionale di Studi

    editing:Caterina Cristina FiorentinoManuela Piscitelli

    Finito di stampare nel mese di maggio 2013

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    Between anti-museum and interactive museum: the case study ofPaolo Orsi in Syracuse, Italy

    Alessio CARDACI1, Antonella VERSACI2, Luca FAUZIA2(1)Department ofEngineering, University of Bergamo, Bergamo, Italy(2) Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, KORE University, Enna, Italy

    AbstractSet up in 1884, for collecting the eastern Sicily's antiquities, the National Archaeological Museum ofSyracuse has evolved during the time following the implementation of collections and thetransformations of the concept of the museum's role in society. Initially based on a nucleus composedof a few objects and some private collections, it was gradually enriched during a period of almost fiftyyears of intensive excavation and research undertaken by Paolo Orsi. Benefiting from the rigorousscientific requirements indicated by Luigi Bernab Brea, the museum started a new life when it movedto Villa Landolina's area where a new structure was conceived by the architect Franco Minissi, apersonality already well known in the museography's field. The building and the exhibit design werestudied by Minissi to ensure the maximum flexibility. The idea was to create a museum in movementor an anti-museum able to adapt to the scientific progress and new archaeological discoveries.Conceived by its creator as a vital center for research and cultural promotion, the museum, thanks tovirtual reality technologies, can today found new capabilities. Starting from a careful "reading" of the

    building and its environment, made by integrating surveying methods, this case study intends tocontribute to the definition of a new approach to the museum visitor experiences through multimedia.

    Keywords:Museography, Interactive museum, Cultural heritage, Franco Minissi, Syracuse

    1. Origin and development of the National Archaeological Museum "Paolo Orsi"Following the creation of the Kingdom of Italy, the need of conveying and reinforcing the new unitednation through the recognition of a common cultural and artistic heritage, resulted in the transformationof the management of cultural institutions in the former states, placing them under its exclusivecontrol. Italy maintained initially unchanged the homogeneous legislative body of the pre-unitary statesin the field of protection of heritage, even due to the obvious difficulties dictated by the opportunity of

    reconciling the liberal ideology with the public interest resulting from the preservation of cultural goods.During the first years of the young Italy, the legislation in this sensitive field was thereforecharacterized by the persistence of a territorially differentiated discipline and by the freedom of privateowners to make indiscriminate use of theirworks of art, including their alienation abroad. This, withthe only exception of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies where this practice had already been banned bythe Bourbon government, also admitting the possibility to expropriate the monuments belonging toindividuals, whether in ruins because of neglect [1].More concrete protection activities in favor of artistic heritage in the new state will begin, however, onlyin the last two decades of the 19thcentury with the establishment of the national museums. It was thefirst attempt of gathering the small private collections also by virtue of an artistic and cultural heritage'slegal status, by then recognized as a public good with collective purposes. We still have to wait untilJune 12, 1902, so that the first law of protection was promulgated and the catalogo unico deimonumenti e delle opere di interesse storico, artistico e archeologico di propriet statale established.However, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, well in advance of the rest of the peninsula since the end of'700, had felt the need to bring together the artistic and archaeological heritage allowing its accessand knowledge to the scholars and the whole community.

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    1.1 At the beginning of the protection of the archaeological collections in SyracuseIn the city of Syracuse, the objects that foreign travelers came to admire had, until that time, beenprotected by a few families, notable art collectors. One of the oldest collections was that accumulatedby the archaeologist Vincenzo Mirabella, who gathered in his great building opposite the church ofSan Tommaso Apostolo, in Ortigia, a number of "endless scraps of weights, mosaics, granite andmarble" [2]. It is although to 1780 that the origins of a museum institution date back, when the BishopG. Baptist Alagona, brought a small collection together in the library-museum of the Seminary, locatedin Piazza del Duomo[3].At the end of the century, the creation of a city museum combined with a cabinet of natural history wasrequested by the poet Tommaso Gargallo. He raised the issue of gathering up in a single collection"simple homelands objects, both cultural and natural value"; i.e. whether those were in possession ofsome collectors or those coming from the new excavations undertaken by Landolina's family [4]. Forthe first time, the need to establish a native museum came to light. Certainly, times were not ripe yetbut this proposal became stronger following the discovery in the orto Bonavia, in the ancient district ofArcadia, of the statues of Asclepius (7 December 1803) and of the Venus Anadyomene (7 January1804) by Saverio Landolina, the regio Custode delle antichit delle due valli Demone e Noto.Landolina will vigorously carry forward the purpose of creating a museum. This intention seemed evenmore necessary in light of the fact that those exceptional discoveries have had a so high resonance tomake stronger the interest of antiquarians and travelers against "Syracuse buried antiquities" [5,6].According to his idea, the city museum would have to collect not only the discoveries of new

    archeological excavations but all the material scattered in private collections in order to offer toscholars and visitors, a complete overview of the archaeological heritage of the town.In addition, the discovery of Venus, while it had increased the interest of scientists to localarchaeology, on the other hand, had attracted the attention of the Royal Court, which could solicit itstransfer to Naples under the pretext of the lack of a proper seat in Syracuse. A request that will beadvanced several times but always been circumvented by Landolina. His frantic search for localswhere to accommodate the new museum will finally succeed in September 1809 when the Bishop ofSyracuse Filippo Maria Trigona will offer some rooms in the Seminary to form the first city museum.The initiative was quickly approved by the king and the museum opened on April 20, 1811. Theorganization of the museum was ensured by Mario Landolina (his father had meanwhile withdrawnbecause hit by a paresis) but it was not an easy task. The collection was made up of precious Greekand Roman monuments, ceramic materials of different nature, inscriptions, lamps, Christians claypots, paintings, urns and charnel houses but museum's spaces were limited. It was precisely for this

    reason that a discussion on its extension will be launched [7].1.2 From the establishment of the first premises to Paolo Orsi's activitiesIt is following the discovery of the sarcophagus of Adelphia on June 12, 1872, during the researchcarried out by Saverio Cavallari in the caves of San Giovanni[8], that we can assist to a new impetusin order to give better placement to the civic valuable works of art. In 1876, an agreement was signedbetween the Central Government and the Town Hall for the construction of a new building for themuseum that was originally supposed to rise in the place of the Post Office building. This hypothesiswas therefore abandoned in favor of the church of San Giovanni di Dio. In the meantime, however, thecivic museum, temporarily located in the premises of the Seminary, next to the Alagonian library, wasdeclared a Regio Museo Archeologico Nazionale. In December 1880, the demolition andtransformation work designed by the engineer Luigi Mauceri and concerning the church of SanGiovanni di Dioand the annexed Fate Bene Fratellihospital, begin [9]. The work was interrupted for

    two years and restarted only in the summer of 1882, under the direction of Luigi Spagna. The buildingwas completed in 1885 and the museum officially opened on 11 April 1886.The establishment of a state museum in Syracuse, a few years from the Italian unification, was a veryimportant political act, also in relation to the place it stood, an area inhabited since prehistoric times,later become the center of the religious life during Greek colonization with the sanctuary of Artemisand Athena. The