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    NNMREC

    ExperimentalandAnalyticalStudyofHelicalCrossFlowTurbinesforaTidal

    Micropower GenerationSystem

    AdamNiblick

    UniversityofWashington

    NorthwestNationalMarineRenewableEnergyCenter

    MSME Thesis DefenseMarch 7, 2012

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    Outline TidalMicropower SystemOverview

    TurbineSelection/DesignParameters

    ExperimentalTesting

    Modeling

    ConclusionsandFutureWork

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    MotivationforMicropower AdmiraltyInlet potential

    siteoftidalturbineinstallationforcommercial

    power NNMRECEnvironmental

    sitecharacterizationmonitoring SeaSpiderbottomlander

    tripod Instrumentationrequires

    power Currentlybattery powered Grid,solarandwindnot

    feasible

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    MotivationforMicropowerBatteryCapacity(Whr): 165 Cost($/Whr): 1.15$

    Unit

    Power

    Usage (W)

    Deployment

    Duration

    (days)

    Total

    W-hr

    #of batteries

    Required Battery Cost

    DopplerCurrentProfiler 0.9 90 1944 12 2,280.00$

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    MotivationforMicropowerBatteryCapacity(Whr): 165 Cost($/Whr): 1.15$

    Unit

    Power

    Usage (W)

    Deployment

    Duration

    (days)

    Total

    W-hr

    #of batteries

    Required Battery Cost

    DopplerCurrentProfiler 0.9 90 1944 12 2,280.00$DopplerCurrentProfiler 0.9 180 3888 24 4,560.00$

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    MotivationforMicropowerBatteryCapacity(Whr): 165 Cost($/Whr): 1.15$

    Unit

    Power

    Usage (W)

    Deployment

    Duration

    (days)

    Total

    W-hr

    #of batteries

    Required Battery Cost

    DopplerCurrentProfiler 0.9 90 1944 12 2,280.00$DopplerCurrentProfiler 0.9 180 3888 24 4,560.00$ImagingSonar(20%dutycycle) 20.0 180 86400 524 99,560.00$

    u0:Inflowvelocity

    :Fluiddensity

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    MotivationforMicropowerBatteryCapacity(Whr): 165 Cost($/Whr): 1.15$

    Unit

    Power

    Usage (W)

    Deployment

    Duration

    (days)

    Total

    W-hr

    #of batteries

    Required Battery Cost

    DopplerCurrentProfiler 0.9 90 1944 12 2,280.00$DopplerCurrentProfiler 0.9 180 3888 24 4,560.00$Imaging

    Sonar

    (20%

    duty

    cycle) 20.0 180 86400

    524 99,560.00$

    ImagingSonar(20%dutycycle) 20.0 180 86400 15 2,850.00$

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    Micropower SystemConcept

    Drawing courtesy of Stelzenmuller et al

    Micropower System A tidal hydrokinetic power generation system to

    power remote instrumentation on the order of 20 W continuous in 1.5

    m/s peak tidal currents.

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    ResearchGoalsProvideinitialconceptforamicropower tidalgenerationsystem

    Providedetaileddesign,analysisandexperimentaltestingoneofthecomponents:thehydrokineticturbine

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    Micropower SystemBlockDiagram

    + +

    Loads

    Monitoring Equipment

    Controller/processor

    Data storage

    Gearbox

    Generator

    Tidal

    Turbine

    BatteryBank

    ConverterRectifier

    Turbine

    Controller

    Loads

    0 2 4 6-2

    0

    2

    time (days)

    u0

    (m/s)

    Tidal Current Profile

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    Outline Micropower SystemOverview

    TurbineSelection/DesignParameters

    ExperimentalTesting

    Modeling

    ConclusionsandFutureWork

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    TurbinePerformanceMetrics Efficiency forpowerandtorqueproduction

    Startingtorquemagnitudeandrange forselfstart

    TipSpeedRatioandRotationRate forgeneratorintegration

    Performancewithrespecttoinfloworientation fordeploymentflexibility

    H:Height

    D:Diameter

    R:Radius

    T:Torque

    u0:Inflowvelocity

    :Fluiddensity:Azimuthal angle

    :Angularvelocity

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    TurbineDesignConcepts

    Axial

    Turbine

    Savonius

    Rotor

    Darrieus

    Turbine

    Hybrid

    Turbine

    Helical

    Turbine

    Sources: Polagye, 2011; engr.mun.ca/~tariq/jahangiralam.pdf; newenergycorp.ca;

    Highefficiency

    (~35%) Good selfstart

    capability

    Accepts flowfromanyhorizontaldirection

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    BladeElementTheory Streamwise velocity(uS) Tipvelocity(R)

    Inducedbyturbinesownrotation Relativevelocity(u

    REL

    ) Resultantvectorof

    uS and R Angleofattack()

    AnglebetweenuREL andchordline

    Lift DragForces(FL,FD) Generateturbinetorque

    Bestliftdragratiowhen10<

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    Axialvs.CrossFlowTurbines

    Tidal Flow is Parallel to Axis

    of Rotation

    Tidal Flow is Perpendicular

    to Axis of Rotation

    Axial Cross-Flow

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    BladeElementTheory Angleofattack()

    Constantlychangingas

    turbinerotates Oftenexceedsstallangle

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    HelicalTurbineParameters BladeProfile

    BladePitch

    HelicalPitch

    AspectRatio

    SolidityRatio/Chordto

    RadiusRatio NumberofBlades

    BladeWrap

    AttachmentDesign

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    HelicalTurbineParameters BladeProfile

    HelicalPitch

    AspectRatio

    SolidityRatio/ChordtoRadiusRatio

    NumberofBlades AttachmentDesign

    0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1-0.1

    0

    0.1

    x

    y

    NACA0018

    Source: answers.com

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    HelicalTurbineParameters BladeProfile

    HelicalPitch

    AspectRatio SolidityRatio/Chordto

    RadiusRatio

    NumberofBlades AttachmentDesign

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    HelicalTurbineParameters BladeProfile

    HelicalPitch

    AspectRatio SolidityRatio/Chordto

    RadiusRatio

    NumberofBlades AttachmentDesign

    Sizelimitedbydeploymentconstraints

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    HelicalTurbineParameters BladeProfile

    HelicalPitch

    AspectRatio SolidityRatio/Chordto

    RadiusRatio

    NumberofBlades(B) AttachmentDesign

    30% Solidity

    15% Solidity

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    HelicalTurbineParameters BladeProfile

    HelicalPitch

    AspectRatio SolidityRatio/Chordto

    RadiusRatio

    NumberofBlades AttachmentDesign

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    ParameterOptimizationHigherefficiency,

    ImprovedCP,

    Manufacturability

    Helical PitchLowerstatictorque

    variation

    ImprovedCP,

    Allows higherpitchAspectRatio EasierDeployment,Lessbladestress,

    Lessvibration

    Betterstartingtorque,

    ManufacturabilitySolidityRatio Highertipspeedratio

    Allowsincrease inpitch

    andreducedaspect

    ratio

    NumberofBlades Fewerparts,Lessbladewakeinterference

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    Outline Micropower SystemOverview

    TurbineSelection/DesignParameters

    ExperimentalTesting

    Modeling

    ConclusionsandFutureWork

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    TurbinePrototypes

    3Blades D=20cm

    H=20cm 1.00AspectRatio 43.7 PitchAngle 30%Solidity

    3BladedTurbineBaselineConfiguration

    4BladedTurbine LowSolidityTurbine

    3Blades D=20cm

    H=20cm 1.00AspectRatio 43.7 PitchAngle 15%Solidity

    4Blades D=17.2cm

    H=23.4cm 1.36AspectRatio 60 PitchAngle 30%Solidity

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    TestsPerformed

    BaselineConfiguration

    LoadPerformanceTest

    StaticTorqueTest TiltedTurbineTest

    DesignComparisonTests

    HelicalPitch/No.ofBlades StrutAttachmentDesign

    ShaftDesign

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    FlumeTestChannel

    3meterslength 72cmwide Maximum0.8m/sflow

    rate Turbinelocatedincenter

    offlumewidthat1.7mfromtestchannelinlet

    AcousticDopplerVelocimeter (ADV) to

    measureflumevelocity

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    TestInstrumentation

    Module

    Reaction Torque Cell

    Particle Brake Flex Coupling

    Optical Encoder

    Locking Plate

    Bearing

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    TurbineOperation

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    LoadPerformanceResults Baseline

    Configuration

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    Liftand

    Drag

    for

    different

    Region of TurbineOperation at 0.4 m/s

    Region of TurbineOperation at 0.8 m/s

    but increasing decreases average

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    StaticTorque Baseline

    Configuration

    Flume:0.7m/s

    0 view,lookingdownstream

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    TurbineDesignComparison

    4-Bladed Turbine3-Bladed TurbineLoad Performance

    Test Results

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    StrutDesignComparison2 mm Spoke 4.8 mm Spoke Circular Plate

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    ShaftDiameterComparisonNo Shaft 6.4 mm Shaft 12.7 mm Shaft

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    TiltedTurbine

    Test

    Downstreamendofturbineframeinclined

    0,2.5,5and10degreeinclinations

    Performancetest

    Baseline

    spoke

    design

    and

    circularplateconfigurations

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    TiltedTurbineTest

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    TestConclusions Fourbladedturbineisbestdesignforoptimum

    aspect

    ratio

    and

    performance Goodselfstart andperformancewithhighsolidity

    MaximizehelicalpitchangletogetbettermaxCP

    Noimpact

    of

    shaft

    diameter

    onperformance

    Circularplate bestattachmentdesign eliminatesprofiledrag,bettertiltangleperformance

    Static

    torque

    is

    not

    uniform HigherinflowvelocitygivesbetterCP

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    Outline Micropower SystemOverview

    TurbineSelection/DesignParameters

    ExperimentalTesting

    Modeling

    ConclusionsandFutureWork

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    VortexModel Freevortexflowmodel

    Bladedividedintoseveralelements

    BladeelementperformancefromCL,CD lookuptables

    Bladeselementssimulatedasvortexgenerators

    SumofvelocitycomponentsgivesuREL

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    VortexModel Comparisontoothermodeltypes

    LesscomputationaltimethanCFD(daysvs.minutes)

    Comparedtomomentummodels,thevortexmodel: Canresolvehelicalgeometrywithoutyawcorrectionfactors

    Betterresolvesthewake

    ModelModifications

    Helicalgeometry

    Strutdragforcircularplateandendspokes

    Flowcurvatureeffects

    HigherCR thanpreviouslymodeled

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    FlowCurvature Changein fromleadingedgetotrailingedge

    Important forhighchordtoradiusratioturbines

    Approximated as

    Virtual camber

    Source: Migliore, 1980

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    Pitchingand

    Dynamic

    Stall Lift,dragaffectedbypitchrate

    Virtualincidence Approximatedby

    CL calculated

    from

    at

    chord CD calculatedat atchord Biases positive

    Dynamicstall Vortexformsattheleadingedgeofhydrofoilandtracksback

    alongthechord Liftisincreasedduringtracking Liftdropsasvortexfullysheds

    0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1-0.1

    0

    0.1

    x

    y

    NACA0018

    Source: Ekaterinaris & Platzer, 1997

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    DynamicStallLift Drag

    Source: NASA, 2009

    Implementation of Secondary

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    ImplementationofSecondary

    EffectsExperimental Data at

    0.8 m/s

    Implementation of Secondary

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    ImplementationofSecondary

    EffectsExperimental Data at

    0.8 m/s

    Model Prediction withno Secondary Effects

    Implementation of Secondary

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    ImplementationofSecondary

    Effects Experimental Data at0.8 m/s

    Model Prediction withno Secondary Effects

    Dynamic Stall added

    Implementation of Secondary

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    ImplementationofSecondary

    Effects Experimental Data at0.8 m/s

    Model Prediction withno Secondary Effects

    Dynamic Stall added

    Dynamic Stall & Pitch

    Rate Effects added

    Implementation of Secondary

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    ImplementationofSecondary

    Effects

    Model Prediction withno Secondary Effects

    Dynamic Stall added

    Dynamic Stall & Pitch

    Rate Effects added

    Dynamic Stall, Pitch

    Rate & Flow Curvature

    Effects added

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    ModelPrediction

    ofInflow

    Variation

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    Extrapolation

    to

    1.5

    m/s

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    Analysis

    of

    High

    Tip

    Speed

    Ratio

    Flow

    curvature

    disabled

    CP=0.43

    Flow

    curvature

    active

    CP=0.46

    2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-0.1

    -0.05

    0

    0.05

    0.1

    0.15

    0.2

    (a)

    Normalized Time (t*u0/R)

    CQ

    =2.6, 1.5 m/s

    2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

    -16

    -8

    0

    8

    16

    24

    32

    (d

    egrees)

    CQ

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    Analysis

    of

    High

    Tip

    Speed

    Ratio

    Duetohighchordtoradiusratio: Flowcurvatureaddsinstabilitytomodeloutput Pitchrateeffectsanddynamicstalloveramplifyingperformance

    Thiseffecthasbeendocumentedinpreviousliterature(Daietal.,2011),(Cardona,1984)

    3/410

    1/26

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    Analysis

    of

    High

    Tip

    Speed

    Ratio

    Duetohighchordtoradiusratio: Flowcurvatureaddsinstabilitytomodeloutput Pitchrateeffectsanddynamicstalloveramplifyingperformance

    Thiseffecthasbeendocumentedinpreviousliterature(Daietal.,2011),(Cardona,1984)

    3/410

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    P j C l i

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    ProjectConclusions Demonstratedneedforandviabilityofatidalmicropower

    system

    Designedaturbineforamicropower system 24%efficientat0.8m/s(andincreasingwithflumespeed)

    Goodselfstartandfloworientationcapabilities

    Optimizedselecthelicalturbinedesignparameters

    Modifiedavortexmodeltoaccepthelicalturbinedesign Demonstratedimportanceofsecondaryeffects

    Demonstratedgeneraltrendsinperformance

    Needforfurtherstudyofsecondaryeffectsforhighchordto

    radiusratioturbines

    F t W k

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    FutureWork Testingofthefullscaleturbine

    Designofsystemdrivetrainandcontrol

    TurbineGenerator matching Selectionofbatterytype

    Improvingturbineefficiency

    Improvedturbinemodeling Examinationandrefinementofsecondaryeffects

    Othermodeltypes(CFD,etc.)

    A k l d t

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    Acknowledgements Dr.BrianPolagye

    Dr.AlbertoAliseda

    Dr.BrianFabien Dr.RoyMartin

    Dr.PhilipMalte

    BillKuykendall

    KevinSoderlund,EamonMcQuaide

    Dr.JimThomson&APL

    CapstoneDesignTeam:

    NickStelzenmuller,BronwynHughes,Josh

    Anderson,Celest Johnson,BrettTaylor,LeoSutanto

    NNMRECOrganization

    SandiaNationalLabs

    Marie

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    Questions?

    B k Slid

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    BackupSlides

    System Performance

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    SystemPerformance

    System Performance

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    SystemPerformance Turbinegeneratormatching

    Desiredgeneratorcharacteristics Lowspeedoperation

    6080rpmfordirectdrive

    Highefficiency

    Flatefficiencycurve

    FitswithinSeaSpidersizeconstraints

    Lowstartingtorque,lowcogging

    Battery Information

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    BatteryInformationCharacteristic SealedLeadAcid NiMH NiCd LithiumIon

    EnergyDensity(Wh/L)[1] Low

    5090

    High

    430

    Low

    15 100

    High

    570

    CycleLife(cycles)[1] Low

    200 500

    Medium

    300 1000

    High

    1500

    High

    1000+

    MemoryEffect[4] LowNoeffect

    MediumLess thanNiCd

    High

    Periodic discharge

    required

    LowNoeffect

    ChargingTime[2] High

    816hours

    Medium

    24hours

    Low

    about1hour

    Medium

    14hours

    Cost[3]

    ($/kWh)Low

    $8.50

    Medium

    $18.50

    LowMedium

    $11.00

    High

    $24

    Toxicity[2] Veryhigh Low Veryhigh Low

    TransportationLimitations[4] No No No Yes

    Comments[1,4] Slowchargingtime;

    lowenergydensity

    Generatesheat

    duringhighrate

    chargeordischarge;

    tolerantof

    overcharge

    oroverdischarge

    Rugged;lowestcost

    percycle;some

    limitations onuse

    duetotoxicity

    Transportation

    limitations;requires

    complexcircuitto

    operatesafely;

    limitedavailability

    forhighpower

    applicationsDataSource:

    [1]Reddy&Linden(2011) [2]Buchmann(2010d) [3]Buchmann(2011b) [4]Buchmann(2010e)

    Helical Turbines

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    HelicalTurbines Liftstyledevice

    Advantages:

    Easilyselfstarts Fairlyhighefficiency

    (~35%)

    Notorqueoscillation

    Disadvantages:

    Difficulttomanufacture

    Lessefficientthanstraightbladeturbine

    Blade Element Theory

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    BladeElementTheory Lift DragForce

    Normal Tangential

    Force

    Helical Turbine Parameters

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    HelicalTurbineParameters BladeProfile

    Helical Turbine Parameters

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    HelicalTurbineParameters BladeProfile

    BladePitch

    HelicalPitch AspectRatio

    SolidityRatio/Chordto

    RadiusRatio NumberofBlades

    BladeWrap

    Strut/shaftDesign

    Helical Turbine Parameters

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    HelicalTurbineParameters BladeProfile

    BladePitch

    HelicalPitch AspectRatio

    SolidityRatio/Chordto

    RadiusRatio NumberofBlades

    BladeWrap

    Strut/shaftDesign

    100% Wrap

    50% Wrap

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    TestMatrix

    Startup

    Shutdown

    Wake

    Measure

    ment

    0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.78 0.7 00.7 0.78

    TurbineDe si gn StrutDesign

    Shaft

    Diameter

    (mm)

    Single

    blade

    length

    Full

    Revolution

    LoadPer

    formance

    Static

    Torque

    SingleBlade,from

    4bladedturbineCircularPlates 6.4

    X X X

    4.8mm,4leg

    spokes6.4

    X X X

    NoshaftX X X

    6.4 X X X X X X X X X X X

    12.7X X X

    CircularPlates 6.4X X X X X X X X

    3bladedturbine4.8mm,3leg

    spokes6.4

    X X X X X X

    LowSolidity

    Turbine

    4.8mm,3leg

    spokes

    6.4

    X X

    X:TestCompleted

    FlumeVelocity(m/s):

    Performancetest TiltedTurbine

    2.0mm,4leg

    spokes4bladedturbine

    0.7

    Dynamic

    TorqueTurbineGeometry StaticTorque

    0.72

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    TestCalculations

    Parameter Symbol

    FlumeSpeed(m/s) u0 0.4 0.8

    StaticWaterHeight(cm) hsw 50 46

    DynamicWaterHeight(cm) h0 49 42

    WaterColumnCrossSectionalArea(m2) AF 0.371 0.318

    TurbineCrossSectionalArea (m2) AC 0.040 0.040

    BlockageRatio 0.108 0.126

    FroudeNumber Fr 0.182 0.394

    MaxBladeReynold'sNumber(4BladedTurbine) ReB 4.0E+04 9.5E+04

    MinBladeReynold'sNumber(4BladedTurbine) ReB 3.6E+03 2.2E+04

    MachineReynold'sNumber(4BladedTurbine) ReM 7.7E+04 1.5E+05

    DataRange

    Typical Test Results

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    TypicalTestResultsLoadPerformanceTest StaticTorqueTest

    Typical Test Results

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    TypicalTestResultsLoadPerformanceTest StaticTorqueTest

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    Streamwise View=0 =20 =40 =70

    Static torque near maximum Static torque

    drops

    Single Blade Static Torque

  • 7/29/2019 20120307 NiblickA Pres Micropower

    73/86

    NNMREC

    SingleBladeStaticTorque

    Single Blade Torque Superposition

  • 7/29/2019 20120307 NiblickA Pres Micropower

    74/86

    NNMREC

    SingleBladeTorqueSuperposition

  • 7/29/2019 20120307 NiblickA Pres Micropower

    75/86

    NNMREC

    Streamwise View=0 =20 =40 =70

    Static torque near maximum Static torque

    drops

    Unobstructed

    (-T) bladePartial

    obstruction of

    (+T) blade at

    location of

    best drag

    TurbineDesignComparison

  • 7/29/2019 20120307 NiblickA Pres Micropower

    76/86

    NNMREC

    4-Bladed Turbine

    3-Bladed Turbine Static Torque TestResults

    TiltedTurbineTest

  • 7/29/2019 20120307 NiblickA Pres Micropower

    77/86

    NNMREC

    Strut

    Design

    TiltAngle

    (degrees)

    Tilt

    Velocity

    Predicted

    CPLoss

    from

    cos(Tilt)

    ActualCP

    Loss

    0 0.720 0.0% 0.0%

    2.5 0.719 0.2% 5.6%

    5 0.717 0.7% 8.8%

    10 0.709 2.8% 23.0%

    0 0.720 0.0% 0.0%

    2.5 0.719 0.2% 4.5%

    5 0.717 0.8% 4.4%

    10 0.709 3.3% 8.9%

    2mm,4Leg

    Spoke

    2mm

    Circular

    Plate

    Wake

  • 7/29/2019 20120307 NiblickA Pres Micropower

    78/86

    NNMREC

    MeasurementTest Baseline

    Configuration

    Flume:0.78m/s

    Wakemeasurementsalongturbinecenterline

    Startup 1012x 10

    -3

    m

    (a)

  • 7/29/2019 20120307 NiblickA Pres Micropower

    79/86

    NNMREC

    p

    Shutdown

    TestProfile 0 20 40 60 80 100 12-20

    2

    4

    6

    8

    TurbineTorque,Nm

    0 20 40 60 80 100 120

    100

    200

    300

    400

    TurbineAngle,

    Degrees (b)

    0 20 40 60 80 100 120

    0.2

    0.4

    0.6

    0.8

    Time, s

    UVelocity,m/s

    (c)

    StartingAngle LoadTorque(Nm) CutInSpeed(m/s) CutOutSpeed

    0 0.006 0.47 0.21

    10 0.006 0.47 0.21

    20 0.006 0.47 0.21

    30 0.006 0.58 0.22

    40 0.006 0.60 0.20

    50 0.006 0.57 0.19

    60 0.006 0.60 0.23

    70 0.006 0.55 0.18

    80 0.006 0.47 0.23

    0.53 0.21

    0 0.021 0.71 0.38

    Averagecut

    in/cut

    out

    speed

    at

    0.006

    Nmloadtorque:

    VortexModel

  • 7/29/2019 20120307 NiblickA Pres Micropower

    80/86

    NNMREC

    Bladeisdividedintosegments,revolutionintotimesteps

    8elementsperblade

    15revolutionstoestablishwake

    Vortexinfluencestheflowofsurroundingblades

    ModelSolution

  • 7/29/2019 20120307 NiblickA Pres Micropower

    81/86

    NNMREC

    SumofvelocitycomponentsgivesuREL

    Totalchangeincirculationovertimeiszero(Kelvinstheorem):

    VortexinducedvelocityatapointisfoundbyBiotSavart Law:

    CirculationstrengthisfoundfromKutta

    Joukowski theorem: Predictorcorrectorto

    solvesystemofequations

    BoeingVertol DynamicStall

  • 7/29/2019 20120307 NiblickA Pres Micropower

    82/86

    NNMREC

    Model

  • 7/29/2019 20120307 NiblickA Pres Micropower

    83/86

    NNMREC

    FlowCurvature Changein fromleadingedgetotrailingedge Important forhighchordtoradiusratioturbines

    Approximated as

    Virtual camber

    FullScaleTurbinePrediction

  • 7/29/2019 20120307 NiblickA Pres Micropower

    84/86

    NNMREC

    All SecondaryEffects Active

    FullScaleTurbinePrediction

  • 7/29/2019 20120307 NiblickA Pres Micropower

    85/86

    NNMREC

    Dynamic Stallonly

    ModelPredictionofStrutDrag

  • 7/29/2019 20120307 NiblickA Pres Micropower

    86/86

    NNMREC

    u0=0.8m/s