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    Need for...... " reordering


    .d~eliv~rysystem.. ....for

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    .( . . .

    Keeping milcb-animals is a dependable means ofsupplcmcnting the fanners'

    income. besides meeting their own daily necds~

    Adding to fanners' .InCOlne

    Agriculture is the maillstay af our rural ecollomy, providillg IivelillOod to aboUlthree-fourth

    of our rural popt'ialioll. NOII.avaiiability of work opporWllilies illrural areas parlicularly

    durillg slack seaSOIlof farming is a major problem for the poor smal/ farmer. A IlUmberof

    programmes like SFDA, MFAL, SLPP hal'e beell implemented through lRDP wilh the maill

    aim of improving their ecollomic condition and keepillg them busy.

    Besides agriculture, callie farming, poultry keeping, piggery development andsheep-breed,lIg,

    dairy and bee-keeping, vegetablefarming and serieulture are some of the subsidiary occupatiolls

    wMell can be adopted by the small farmers to sllppl,menl Iheir income derillg leall periods.

    A good number of small farmers and agricultural labourers are being

    assisted under the Sp:cial Livestock Production Programme.


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    ,. /


    l. XXXJ

    o. 16

    ay 16,1983

    aisakha 26, 1905

    H u r u k s h e l r a,

    Gndia's Journa) of rural development),


    whether with this Programme we, through the- existiw;!

    'inst,itutions and' pr~ed~res, w i n he .abl~ to 'meet the

    expectations of. 'millions of our poor farmers, ~ share-, ~croppers, rural 'artlsans, village craftsmcp, _scheduled

    castes/tribes or whether there is a need to reorder the

    credit delivery system so that the beneficiaries under

    the IRDP receive credit facilities on uniform terms and

    simp].j.fi~d procedures throngh at least one ag~ncy with", . ' .in walkable distance. It is a crucjal. p.oillt and merits

    I-I~this issue, we c?rry a purposeful study on the ques-,"tion whether there is a need to reorder the credit

    delive~y ~ystem of 'what more -innovations are" required

    to -make it really dclivcr"goods. We hope our readers

    w:II benefit by this study.

    ' .

    serious. consideration.



    TH~UGH THE HARDNUTSwill be hard to please, the

    .fact is that we have come a long way from the

    'era when poor farmers used to reconcile to their help~

    lessness and an0'r ..their agriculture to deteriorate from, , ,year to, year but fight shy of approaching anyone in

    lhe' Government for help. Ever since the plans began,

    . " -the farmers have been the centre of attention of an

    development programmes:, It may be said' that 'tlle

    benefits of these, in greater measure, have travened to

    the 'richer farmers but to other farmers too to a good

    extent. What is more important is that the very en-

    vironment o f rural countryside ,now reverberates witha spirit of ambitious optimism that ~ven the right

    amount of planning and inputs, there is no upper Jimit

    to achievement or accomplishment.

    Of the inputs that a farmer needs, credit is the most

    basic. Ove.r the years, the Government agencies-

    j~ined by ~lationalised banks in the late sixtie8---"llave

    introduced several -innovations in the sphere of rural

    credit with a 'view to' ensuring that the weaker sec-

    tions - of the' 'Society bene'fit from the credit and otherI ' , '

    developmental needs. Establishment of institutionsI r,\

    starting with PACS, FSS, LAMPS etc. to the,DJ

    nationalised banks and the regig-p-~l rural hanks is a

    t~stimony of efforts made in\; this 1 du-eetion. With, . j

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    GOVERNMENT HAS from time to time introduced

    several new innovations in the 'sphere of rural

    credit with a view to ensuring that the weaker sectionsof the society benefit from credit and secure other .deve-

    lopment needs.. Instances of these innovations have to

    be found in ceding Primary Agricultural Credit Socie-

    ties (PACS) to the commercial, banks, setting up

    Farmers' Service Societies (FSS), Large-sized Multi-

    purpose Agricultural Societies (LAMPS) ~ro tribals,

    setting up Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) and. }helike. However, with the implementation of Integra-

    ted Rural Development. Programme all over the coun-

    try in 5011 blocks from October 2, 1980, we may

    . ask ourselves whether (i) these institutions as envisag-

    ed in the programme are able to meet the expectations

    of our millions of sharecroppers, rural artisans, village

    craftsmen Scheduled castes/tribes; (li) beneficiaries, ,

    under IRDP throughout the country are. receiving-

    credit facilities on uniform terms 'and simplified p,oce,

    dure"through at least one agency within walkable and

    manageable distance; (iii) overlapping/duplication of

    efforts for dispensation of credit and competition

    rather than bridging the credit gap, by many agencies

    . in one or several villages has been reduced; (iv) all

    the 5,76,126 .villages in the country are now covered

    by the' credit insiitutions; (v) credit has b,"en linked

    with services and supplies so that. nltimately output

    and income increases; (vl) these institutions enable

    every rural family to involve participate effectively in

    the process of development, deriving its reasonable

    share in the generation of GNP 'lnd increase in the per

    capita net earnings or income/purchasing. power; (vii)

    the pernicious problem of overdues has been solved.Thus, it is against, this backgronnd an attempt is

    made in this paper to focus the attention of the ad-

    ministrators, planners, academicians and those ,man~


    I. I


    ':. ,

    Need) for reorderingcredit delivery s:ystem

    A. R. PATEL

    Manager (PMEC), Ba!1k of Baroda, Central Office. Bombay, ,

    ning various credit agencies on the urgent need for.

    restructuring the institutional credit structure at the

    grass-root level in such\ a way as to maKe it an eill-

    cie'nt institution for converting credit into service~ and

    at the same time overF0ming most of the problems if

    not all, experienced by the beneficiaries, institutionsand the Government.

    Strengthening grassroot operatives

    THE' EXPERIENCES"SO far gaindby the bankers,.

    however, reveal that while the RBI provides

    refinance to the cooperatives and RRBs and ARDC

    performs the functions of development and refinancing

    instituion, the rural credit structure at the grassroot

    levels/botiom has become weak, moriburid and ,.isbe-',

    comi.ngweaker and weaker day by day to perform the

    functions expected of it. Thus, with the ~etting up

    of the NABARD at national level" policy changes

    should be brought about at the grassroot level of

    .credit structure' which. has been faced with unsur-mountable and pernicious problems. It .i~ true that

    one single credit agency may not be in a position to

    provide all the needed credit in the country for a~hiev-

    ing the desired development in the rural areas. As

    ihere has been a huge credit gap in aI;"ost all th>

    "di~triCts of our country, multi-agency approach has

    to be necessarily accepted .in principle to seek addi-

    tional sources of credit a'od continu~usly provide funds

    for development projects initiated in all the villages.

    However, in the present system of mnlti-agcncyappro-

    ach concept,. a farmer secures credit. from various

    sources locaied around his' village viz. branch of aCommercial Bank/R~~onaJ Rural Bank, 'Primary Agri-

    cultural Credit Society (PACS), Primary Land Deve-

    lopment Bank (PLDB) or Farmers' Service Societie


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    ,SS). Not only the multi-agency approach in the

    eseht form has created plenty of pernicious problems,

    t this approach has leI! out a large number of farmers,

    lages, activities, schemes, projects and progrp,tnp1cs

    m the purview of credit. Thus, .wliile multi-agencr

    proach has to be accepted as a concept for meeting

    ge scale demand for credit and development in our

    ral ~.reas in a n organised. way, it is utmost esser.-l and urgent that the rural credit structure at the


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    dispen~ation of credit, supply of inputs, 'raw mate-

    rials~ technical guidance,' marketing facilities, repairs

    and after sale s~rvices of the farm equipment/village

    industries, follow-up, supervision of the end use of

    credit, recovery etc. could be performed efficiently.

    Thus, adequ,ate number of field officers in the im-

    portant areas of cooperative credit, agricuItU;Ie,

    animal husbandry, village industries etc. should be

    provid~d. This staff should be provided thorough

    training in the areas' of agriculture, rural credit, rural

    de~elopment, resource management, public rela"

    tions etc. There should be a cadre /0\ such field' offic

    cers who can manage the affairs ~f FSS on the sound

    principles of ~business and management. It would be

    worthwhile if local staff recruited for this 'purpose is ,

    trained at th; Institute of Rural Management, Anand

    to perform their functions efficiently. In faCt, root canse

    of the failure of the'existing PACS, FSS and branc~es

    of Coinmercial/Cooperative/Regional Rural Bank to

    li~e to the expectations of the farmers, Government and

    bank management has to be found in inadequacy'offield officers, lack of training and guidance, lack of

    mobility, unawareness of job role and re:'ponsibiIi-

    ties etc. The problem of constraint ,of the farmer/rural,'

    artisan in the-adoption of new technology and raising

    his farm output has to be found iu 'the lack of effort

    on the part of credit agency to (i) transfer the viable

    -technology, (ii) provide mauagerial assistance,,d

    (iii) undertake marketing of his produce. Ther,~ is

    utter confusio'n on this area of responsibilities that

    who should perform these,functions, whether Govern- ..

    ment ot the Bank. In the prOCessthe farmer andbatik both have to suffer.

    \ ,. . Linkage \\!ith extension agencies\ . - \

    'N 0 W THAT THE GOVERNMENT has introduced pi"aC-tically in all th~ states the 'Training and Visit

    System' under which one Village Extension Worker;s

    provided to look after 600 farm families in a group

    of three to fonr villages and ten VLWs in each

    block are proposed to be provided under lRDP,

    there is an urgent need to prepare. familyvvise "farmplans and farm budgets". Thus, there shoul~ be

    effective linkage between FSS, VLW and beneficIanes

    in the rural areas for achieving c"mmon goals.

    TIlis will help the FSS to appreciate to what extent

    the potential for fann development could be exploit-

    ed on the basis of" available resources-land, irriga-

    tion. lubbur, live-stock; skill, tecllnol'(gy etc. Farm

    budgeting exercise will ~sure ,(i) opti~um utilisa-

    t.ion .of these 'scarce resources, (ii) effiCIent deploy-

    ment of funds; (iij) generation of employment and

    income at desir~d level; (iV1 improvement in the

    viability of the scheme; and (v) strengthening the

    l~isk-bcaring capacity etc,

    In the pre~ent syst;'pl this asp~ct is totally neglect-

    cd as a result of which a marginal farmer /vtllage

    craftsman is not 'in a position to generate .additional

    income out of his farm activity, or cottage industry.'

    Farm Plannina and F,um Budgeting exercise willo ,enable the farmer, Village Extension Worker and

    the FSS to' appreciate whether his present resoutces

    have the 'potentialities for generating additional in-

    come from. which 'he' can repay the Joan instal-

    ment, pay .interest and retain appreciable sum fer

    his consumption. This would assist the beneficiary-'hmilies ',to adopt "crop-cum-livestock-cuin-acquac',31-'

    ture system approach" whiCh will engage the falmer

    "and his entire family in diversified activities and

    relieve him from risk: The farmers/artisans would

    also be identified, by the staff and provided trainin

    so that they can 'lean;' Iietter i;'chniques and acquire

    skill for improving their output and income. Women-

    folk who have s o far been neglected in the proces,

    of developm~nt can also be identified and provi~e

    training in respect of self emplo)'ment-generallo

    . scheme~airy, cottage industries; processing and thelilie. H~side~, child, care, applied nutrition, publi

    hygiene and sanitation, volut,taiY adoption of smal

    family norm, literacy, programmes can also find'favour with womenfolk and they can be mvolved

    increasingly in this.' area ,for. betterment of huma

    society. The FSS and the financing bank would then

    be in a better position to make use of the infra-

    structure created for agricultural develop]l1ent by the

    Government in the ~onntry viz.' Research, Exten

    sian,' Education etc. Hesides, '{F,~nn-Planning, an

    Farm Budgeting' exercise will enable the FSS an

    the fillancing batik to determine the genuine andwilful defaulters. ' The line of credit in case of thos

    who are genuine defaulters can immediately, b

    ,tarted with "proper built-in mechanism and linkages.

    There are also a good number of farmers who are

    indebted either to cooperative bank or money-lenders

    and ,have suffe~ed on account oJ, natural calamitie

    in a series of years. ' At present not that thes

    farmers are not financed by the bank, but so far

    no effort has been =de to' appreciate thei'Tproblems

    and assist them. Their land had already deteriorate

    in productivity because of the operation of t!'theory of yicious circle 'no investme~t means n

    pmc1uction'., These farmers would under Far

    Planning and Farm Budgeting e"ercise be Identlfi

    and a careful study of their' bala;]ce sheets. (assets

    and 'liabilities) would be useful for developing :i Ion

    term plan in,,'olving 'crop:-cllm-livesto~k~cum-villag

    industries' system approach which would augmen

    their income every year from which a small suni ca,

    b~ spared to redeem old ?ebt as also present borro:"

    ings and appreciable amount could be used for farrul

    consumption. AIl this requires a detailed househ",lexercise which can only be done by the experts 0

    IFSS a~d the fina~cing!refinancing institutions. Onl

    then our aQTiculture would sustam and prOVIde ceo

    nomic stre;gth/r;sk bearing capacity to the family.\' ,

    KlJRUKSHETRA May 16, 1983

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    'Developmental role

    FARMI!RSSERvrCESOCIETIESset up' at the' grass

    , root level, would pe financed by the Commer"-

    al or Cooperative or Regional Rural Bank. Thus,

    s financing institution would be ,an organic link

    tween the FSS anhe grassroot, level and the

    ABA~D' at the national level. ' This institution willave, therefore, to be,' drastically restructured such

    at it is enabled and fully equipped to, play the role

    the development in a inore committed manner

    her than .merely' providing finance.' Today, 'the

    ACS, branches of Commercial, Regional Rural Bank,.

    strict Central Cooperative ,Bank.,fud the Land Deve-

    pment bank hive inadequate field staff. Besides,

    ey are not properly trained and exposed .to the

    ncept' of rural lending operations. Their "mobility

    restricted under the groimd'thatniral lendin'g is :a

    ing' proposition and 'their profitability is e~oded..hese financing instituions m'ay ~tave to be, manned

    experts in the" area, of crop production, agricul-

    ral engineering, fisheties".anim1l.1 'husbandry, plan"

    iori, horticulture; management,' rural ' industries

    c. They should be in a position to, fonnrilate,

    plement and monitor .farm and rural development

    ojects suCcessfully and show results.' With the

    lp, Of latest' managen;.nt tools they should be able

    conduct technical, economic and financial apprai-

    l of the' loan proposals and advise the top manage",

    ent at the central office to 'take .quick' decision.

    hey should continuously: remain in touch 'with the

    est developments ,taking . place in their respective

    eld/disCipline in India.and other advanced coun-

    es. They should analyse.'the' 'economic banking,

    d 'marketing trends in ,)ndia and 'guide the FSS:

    hey should coordinate the effort, of various ,inslitU-

    ns/agencies . at the state level in implementing the.

    evelOPment projects successfully. While, profitabi-

    y and ,cost'consciousness should be the considera-',

    n of a commercial institution, effort has to be

    ade to' optimise the Beturn on the investment to be

    ade for rural de,wlopment by continuou

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    .Isn't institutiona1 credit,. acostly aflair ?


    B; SAMBASIV A RAO aDdC : SRINIVASA RAODeptt~of Coop. and App._Economics, Andhia Universif, Waltair

    Findings of the study

    - .;. ' " . .

    Objectives .ofthe' study

    1. To compute the real ,interest rates, ,and1 '1", ~.

    2. To compare the contractual and' real interest

    rates prevailing in institutional agencies,


    ~ ~.

    THE VILLAGE, MADALA in Ountur District of

    Andhra Pradesh was selected fOr the study.' A

    sample of 47 farms comprising of 17 marginal' farms

    (below 2.50 acres), IS sm-all(2.51 to 5.00 acres), 7'

    medium (5.01 to 10 acres) and 8 big farins -(above

    10.01 acres) have been selectedpasing ,on stratified

    ra'ndom sampling technique. The .'reference year of ~

    the study is 1981-82. A schedule specifically designed

    (or this purpose was conyassed among. the sample-

    households; "


    , '

    As A BACKDROP of the study, an 'attempt is made

    to analyse the flow of funds (from 'both institu-

    tional and non-institution~ sources) to different cate-

    gories of borrowers_ It is observed that ,per acre bor-

    rowing,; on an average (Table 'I) ,is Rs. 970 and it

    is ijie highest on marginal farms (Rs. 1323) anci

    lowest on big farms (Rs. ,904). It, appears that

    - there exists an inverse relation between per =e bor-

    rowings and farm size, This may be an indication ofthe.higher demand (or credit by farmers with relatively

    lower size of holdings caused' by deficiency of owned

    , funds for farm investments.

    THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE of planning in India has

    been to raise the llving standards of its people.

    --Snchrealisation depends, to a large; extent, ~n the,

    agricultnral sector, because 70 per cent" of India's

    population derive, their sustenance from the same sec-

    tor. The availability of capital mostly constraints the

    tempo of agricultural development. This is"particu-

    larly so in countries like India in which a majority

    of.the farmers in the agricultural sector revolve round

    the vicious circles of poverty. It is often contendedthat, because of their low incomes, their savings 'are,

    low anq hence ,low investment to finance the needed

    ~nputs in agricnlture. As such provision of credit to

    meet such requirements would determine the ,speed of

    agricultural developm"t. This aspect would assume

    _ greater importance in the presence of technologica!

    changes in the agricultural sector.

    1. Real interest rates will be obtained by adding cost of credit,component to the contractual interest rates. Cost of credit

    includes the expenditure .incurred on' travelling. cq9ts,

    application fee, days of work lost. etc. in. securing the

    loan. 0' - "r

    So far much emphasis has been' focussed' on both,

    demaQd and supply aspects of institutional credit. Due

    attention' is also given to the utilisation of borrowingsand structure of interest rates of both institutional and

    non-institutional markets. Bnt in analysing the strnc-

    ,ture of interest rates of institutional' agencies' only

    contractual interest rategare taken into consideration

    leaving the real interest rates.' So a modest attempt

    has"been made in this paper to' analyse the differences

    between the contractual and real interest rates of

    institutional market.

    KURlJK'HETRA M~ 16""

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    Percentage Distribution o f Burry"iogs by Source aod ~izeGroup-;

    In st itu tion al Non~in.Jt}tutional Grand~izeGroup Total

    Commer- Coop- Land Small Intensive Total Agrl. Prales- Rela. Traders. Totaletal eratives Devea. F arm e rs M anure , Money- sionar lives;banks lopmrnt Deve~ Schemes l en de rs M o ne y- friends

    banks lop- lendersme(lt

    Age ncy .

    Marginal Farmers 39,65 . 5.7\ 3.73 6.23 6.41 61.93 26'77- 6.91 3.07 "I .32 38.07 100.00

    (1323 '0)

    SmaU Farmers! .. ' ., 34.28 7.86 18.45 3 '31< 6.97 70.87 17'68 419 6.83 0.43 29,13. 100.00(979 '00)

    Medium Farmers 31'99 17 '34 20,96" 10.10 80 .39 9'93 5'98 . 1 '35 2'36 19.61 100.00

    (914 '00)

    Big F~rmers ' 15.95 6 '52 42 .30 3.26 68'03 17.05 12.98 1.29 . 0.65 31'97 100.00


    Overall 25 .73 . 8 .67 28 .41 1.50 5 ..67 69.98 17.23 9 '19 2'58 l-(J2 30'02 100.00

    (970 '00)

    (Figu re s in brackets indicate per'accl? borrowings in .ruP~) ,

    Also al>put 70 percent" of the borrowings,' orr an

    verage, is provided by institutional agencies and the

    hare of institutional credit to total credit is the highest

    n medium farms (about 80 per cent) and lowest on

    argn,al farms (about 62 per cent). These higher

    roportions of institutional finance may be considered

    s an indication of th eaccessibility of the farmers tohese ,institutions.

    Regarding the structure of interest rates the non-

    nstitutional interest rate -on ah" average is about 26

    er cent and that of institutional agencies is below 12

    er cent which. indicate the .wider margin between the

    nstitutional and non-institutiOlial'lnterest fates. But

    here exists a criticism that if w~ consider the real

    nterest rates, the gap between institutional and noh-

    nstitutional interest rates will be narrowed dow~ or

    i some cases the .real interest" rates,of institutional

    market may even exceed .the non-institutional interest

    rate. To examine the severity of this problem real

    interest rates are computed.. " "

    IT ISOBSERVEDthat the real and contractual interest

    rates are same in non"institutioDal market as the

    farmers doesn't incur any expenditure oh transporta-

    tion, work days lost, etc. s O the differl;nce is found'

    in institutional market, as most of those institutions

    are situated putside the study village. .The details". .

    regarding the real and contractual' interest rates of

    institutional ag~;"cies are presented in Table 2.'. I,;

    The tilble reveals that the real and contractual rates

    .'in Primary ".Co-operative Societies are, same. Simi-

    lady, iii'regard to commercial banks, there exists mar.

    ginal difference mainly due to travelling costs incurredin getting the toano . .

    Table 2

    Comparison, between Real and Contractual Interest Rates of Institutional Credit

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    \ ,

    . ,

    . ,,


    " W o r k burden offarmwomen!a study

    -'C. B. SINGH and USHA RANI

    Divn. of Dairy E conomics, Statistics add Management, NDRI, .~al ~ar,.aD

    'I T IS WELL KNOWN that 'Women have been playing avital role in the households since ages. They have'

    worked as one of the wheels of family qullock cart

    and tried to put household's economy on the sound

    iooting. It 'has been stated that women ~nd girls to-

    gether constituted about half of the world's population.

    They put in two-third of the world's work hours and

    receive only' one-t"nth ' of its income. Normally they

    are engaged in a wide range of activities in addition

    to their routine' domestic work. But the time spent

    and the value 'of these services rendered by-lhem is

    never computed. Various' jobs done by women are

    not recognised as productive work and, therefore, they

    are' engaged in a ,,:ide range of activities in ~ddition

    to their routine domestic work. But the time spent

    participation of rural women in' various development


    It has been observed that the most oL the dairy

    operations are done by f~rm women in many areas.

    Among the employed rural females, about 89 per cent

    'are engaged; in the primary sector like agriculture, .

    livestock, forestry etc. and most of !hem belOlig.to

    ,'the poorer sections of the rural community. Thcre-

    fore, it is vcry important that all the development pro-

    grammes should aim at optimum utilization of human

    re.sources both men and women for increased' produc'

    tion and welfare of the society.

    Various kinds of jobs perfqrmed by the farm women,'

    and the magnitude of employment provided by diffe-

    rent activities including domestic chores not only vary

    from one 'ca!egory of household\o a~other but also

    differ in different months of the year. The present

    stndy was, therefore, tak~n', np to examine the work

    burden on a female of weaker sections and analyse

    the magnitude of. her under/over employmellt duringthe year. - ,,'


    ,'T HE P;E~EiH STUDY was' conducted in the threeof the 27 villages adopted under the Operational

    Research Project of the National Dairy Research In-'

    , stitute, Karual by. selecting rand~mly 75 households

    of weaker sections ,consisting of landless labourers,

    'marginal' farmers having operatioual hplding upto 1

    hectare and small farmers having 1.01 to 2.0 hectares.

    Data on various aspects of female participation in

    different activities were colle

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    J . Average size of family 5 . 24 6 . 8 0 5 . 1 4

    2. Average size of Operational hold~ ,

    iog (ha) 0 . 60 1 . 8 5-3 . Average number of Male workers 1 . 7 2 1 . 9 2 I . 6 8

    . 4. Avera~enumber of Female workers. 1 .36 I . 52 1 . 4 8

    S . Average number of Milch ani-mals.

    "(a) Buffalo 0 . 92 1 . 44 Hi

    (c) Crossbred cow 0- ( ) 4 0 ' 16 0. ] 2

    (c) Local cow 0 . 60 0 ' 56 0 ' 48

    Table I

    Socio:-Econooilc Profile"of Sample HoUsehold!

    ach month- for performing different activities were

    worked' ont and are brought out in Table II.

    A close examination of Table II reveals that there

    was a great varialion in female labour employment in ,..

    ifferent months 'which ranged from 6.20 hours per

    ay in' a month of May to 11.13 hours per day. in

    pril, the average being 8.12 hours. The months of

    pril, June, October and January registeredhil

    1: 99 0 . 30 0 . 42 4. 06 6' 78

    1. 84 1 - 43 4. 05 3 . 41 ] 0 . 73

    1' 26 0 . 26 0 . 66 4 . 17 6' 35

    2. 02 0 ' 30 0 - 41 4 , 02 . 6 . 76,.1. 91 0 . 75 1 . 64 3 . 82 8' 12

    23. 52 9' 24 20 . 20 47 . 0 4 100. 00

    AVERAGE WORK BURDENThe average work burden ,on a female of dilIerent

    egories of weaker sections was estimated to examine

    ir work participation in various jobs by aggregating

    figures of female labour use in each month'. of the

    ar and are given in Table III. '

    The close perusal of Table ill reveals that o,verall

    erage annual work burden on a female was as high

    2964 hours in a year. The female of landless labour-

    had the highest work burden (3037 hours). It was

    erved that work participation of a women of small

    mer amongst all the categories recorded the highest.ticipation in dairy;,;g activities. The participatiol)

    females in dairying ranked third after domestic and

    ur (wage earning)n case of landless labourers

    whereas it ranked second after domestic work formarginal and small farmers' categon.,,;.

    .' Considering the average norm of 225 days per an-

    num fo; women, it cali he concluded that females are

    over-burdened With work in all the catego!ies of house-



    With a view to assess the extent of under-employ-

    ment or over-employment of a. female worker in diffe-

    rent categories of households of weaker sections, two

    approaches were attempted, one by exclnding the totalwork days for'dome.tic work and the other by includ-

    ing the work days for domestic work, considering the

    norm o f 225 days for women. .

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    Table III

    A mge W ork BDtden on A Female in Differe.t Montb.

    . (Hours/day)

    Category ol.households

    Landless' Marginal Small

    labour farmer' farmer


    ulliter-eIIlployment of women W l lS ~e higl:uisLqn small

    fMtn5 while it was the lowest in I~~la1:lb'Ur~t~gory. ' Thus' the ext~nt ef ~cier-einployment. r~ged

    from 6 ~r cent for a, woman of Iinidless labour cate-

    gory to about 11 per cent on small farms' ilie average

    being 13 per cent...



    Table IV shows the -extent of under-employment/

    over-employment of a female in' different categories

    Of households. The perusa~ of Table IV reveals, that

    7 ,96 8'12

    1905.40 2963,80







    11 '46


    6. 87


    6. 76

    6. 86


    Total hours in 8.year 3036-SO

    9 '817.66








    6 ' 1 7


    8 -04,





    0 ' 2 8






    10 .30









    , 10.57







    C'ONSIDI!RING the domestic chores performed by' ii

    woman in ilie household, it appeared iliat women

    of all the categories of households were over-burd,ened

    with work. Women of landless laboUl1'r category were

    most over"burdened followed py one' of marginal cate-

    gory indicating about 69 and -63 -per cen.! of over-eIl1P-

    loyment respectively. This suggested that provision

    of extra employment opportunity to iliem would further

    aggravate their burden and worsen their condition.

    . Nevertheless in view of their 'active participati'1n in

    various operations of dairying, some provision should

    be made to impaJ:1iliem trainihg in scientific dairy faro.'ming at village/local level so as to make them efficient

    in decision making and job perform~nce. This could

    go a long way in harnessing the female labour of weaker

    sections more effectively which would simultaneously

    increase family labour incomes through , improved

    d!tirying. i

    Table IV '

    Extent of under-employmentlover-empJoyment of A Female Worker. .' .

    Sr. No. Categorya/households


    1. Landless labourers2; Marginal farmers

    3. Small farmers

    1 ,2


    Underwemp/oyment when domestic Ove", : ,employment wh"J t!0meatic

    work excludes r work Included-

    - Days of under- Percentage of . Days 0/over. Percentage of

    employment in ,mder.employment employment in _o!er~employment, the year the year

    )- , 4 5 6

    -. 13 .30 5.91 154,60 6~ .71

    36 .03 16.01 142.82 63'48


    16,60 183 -18 61,,41

    28.81 12.80 _ . 145 .60 64'71






    KURUK~H:I!TItA May 16, 1983

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    H,'OUS1NG is a bag as well as complex problem inIndia. It has two major facets-urban and al. More attention is paid to urban housing because

    the pressure otgrowing numoors and the need to

    et the'requirements of slum"and pavement dwellers

    well as urban renewal. In the process, rural hous-

    g gets neglected though the greater part of the popu-

    ion livl~sin villages and smaIl towns.

    In a: study prepared .by the International Union of

    ilding Societies and Savi.ngs Associations, Chicago,

    'The t~ase for housing in the developing count.ries',rold Hobinson 'writes: "Rural or small town' housing

    y be needed at times to slow down an excessive

    untry-to-town movement. .Lack of housing in rural

    as creates a 'push' to the city equal to that of the

    y's pull and thereby creates additional urban housing

    blem. Attempts to raise the standard. of living in

    al ;ueas are sometimes designed, therefore, to

    unteract this movement rather than to create em-

    yment or manpower problem."

    The latest estimate or housing shortage in the country

    o,",r 200milliori, units - 15 'million in rural areas

    d.five million in urban.

    The Sixth Plan has stressed the need for providing

    esfor ilie landless rural worker and has referred to

    mall subsidy given for rural housing. It has also

    ked of the need'to ~upply protected water andsani-

    on. It has budgeted for an investment 'of

    . 12,900 crores for housing during the Plan .period,

    distribution of this amount being Rs. 3,500 crores

    rural areas and Rs. 9,400' crores in urban ;ueas.

    s will provide for 13 milli6n rural housing units andmillion urban units. More ilian 80 per cent of the

    l investment will be in the private sector and thence in the public sector.

    In~tituti0nal aspects of/ rural housing

    It.t.paRK. ehainDllD, Houl!Dli nOl.p trr c ;e . ~

    . While the share. in hOUlliIiginvestment betwcien ronil

    and urban area. are in the ratio of.2: I, t.I1eirshares

    are in the reverse. ratio in respect of the number of

    .units to be built. If the rural .hare is ~tepPed up. to

    ,halfillthe coming years, rural housing can be stimula-ted a great deal. Much srilaller capital. per capita

    is required to stimulat" rural housin~

    .Land does not pose a,nJitractable and costly a pro\).lem in the countrysi.de as in cities and towns. The

    costs involved in high rise buildings such as.for foun-dation and lifts are absent in rural housing. Whatever

    local construction materials are available can be readily

    used while labour. is much cheaper. ., \

    In urban housing there are high overheads:' like

    contractor's margin and architect's fees. The costa elf

    basic amenities like drainage and water are enormoUll. .

    Any action taken for rural housing at present is con-

    centrated on grant of a small subsidy and .some IOrt

    of site allotment and homeconstructiOil by the Govern-

    ment for the 'landless poor; These are neCessary but

    they do not go far enough . They need to be supple-

    mented' by provision 'of housing finance to the small

    farmers who have some kind.of a borne but who can .

    use the funds to improve their living

    . conditions. A housing policy for the rural population

    should cover all aspects of rural housing and should be

    implemented in an integrated and not in an isolatedmanner.

    States' role

    R'.URAL HOUSING is ~sentially a State problem uddeserves a muc!) higher priority. Rural housiDI

    finance is more productive and hence I8rgc fiDaDcialresources' are justified.


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    The Housing and Urban Development Corporation

    and the Housing Development Finance Company are

    examples of specialised institutions which provide

    housing loans for urban req;mements. HUDCO has

    also entered rural housing in a linrited way. There are

    also urban cooperative honsing finance societies. In

    ,addition to what the governments are doing to provide

    subsidies for construction of homes for the homeless,

    and housing for their own employees, institutional faci-

    lities should be created exclusively for the ruralpopl,llation.

    A carefully planned institutional framework of

    financial institutions for rural housing should be created.

    State finance corporatiens which have been dominated

    by the State Governments have worked under a great

    deal of political influence and pressure without vitality,

    professioniilism and .creativity. Each State should have

    a rural housing finance 'corporation sponsored by

    agencies such as HUDCO and HDFC and with the

    State 'Government's support. The initial capital should

    be shared equally by the banks, insurance companies,

    Unit Trust, cooperative banks, housing boards and

    financial institutions.

    The State Governments need not. put in equity blit

    can provide an interest-free advance initially for 10 to

    20 years so as to enable these l'orporations to make a

    proper start and set up a sound organisation. The

    State Government can have two directors on the Board

    but no ,responsibility and obligation to sele{:t and

    (Contd. from page.7)

    a continuing basis and findings of these research

    studies shocld be. utilised for evolving guidelioes as

    well as amending the provisions of certain acts for

    accelerating the flow of rural credit for rural deve-

    lopment. Comprehensive evaluation sludies should

    be undertaken by NABARD on a continuing basis

    to evaluate the benefits of projects and estimate the


    appoint the chairman and the chief executive. These ." responsibilities ,can be belter handled jointly by

    HUDCOand HDFC.

    Channelling of rural savings

    THROUGH the proposed new housing financeinstitu-tions, rural savings will be increasingly used forrural housing. Any means. by which rural savings are

    encoUraged and inveSted in housing deserves maximum

    support. The average subsidy provided in the SixthPlan for a rural family is Rs. 500 but this is hardly

    sufficient. Perhaps the best way to use such subsidy

    is to keep the interest rate on housing loans low in

    rural areas.

    . One important point that reqnires' emphasis is that

    communications of the .State rural. housing finance

    corporations should be ouly in the language of tho

    State. The farming community can then understand

    .and appre{:iate the value of their' services. These

    . corporations should have branches in every district,

    which would do the actual lending.

    Housing finance is institutionalised all over the world.

    In India, this process has started particularly after

    RODCO came on the scene; since the start of HDFC

    five years ago there has been further progn~s. How-

    ever, without 'active steps to institutionalise rural

    housing finance; no real progress can be made in this

    vital sphere of social welfare.

    (COURTESY: The Hindu'Survey o f Indian Industry)

    . 1

    extent of benefits. NABARD should havll a very

    effective liaison with the departments of the Union

    Ministries and those of State Ministries. It should

    be able' to impress upon State Governmen~; to play

    a positiv~ and dynamic role in removing the caDs-

    traints coming in' the way of developmer~t in a

    time-bound programme.

    KURUKSHETRA May 16, 1983

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    Some thoughts. on,community participation

    T. K.RAY

    Need for ch'ange in outlook

    the decision-making process in planning, implementa-tion, monitoring, evaluation and benefits, Last five

    elements culntinate in total participation. Eaiticipation

    also means a self-sustaining mechanism which does not

    end. with completion of a project. People's partiCipa-

    tion is the people's iiritiative to assert themselves willi ,

    dignity and self-respect. Participation stimulates desire

    for change and encouraging the belief or creating self-

    confidence that change can be realised. It envisages

    man's ability to act, to' change and control his environ-

    ment. People must, develop and educate themselves

    through a process of thinking, problem-solving andacting. And the goal of this process should he libera-tion from prejudices, oppression, exploitation and

    acquirin~ of increased socio-economic power over the

    community's life-style and environment.

    INOUR COUNTRY realising the importance of commu-

    nity participation, we had to begin withthe e>,ten-

    sion workers with subsequent enlargement of the pro-"

    cess by introduction of Panchayati Raj Institution

    CPR!) for all Community Development Schemes. In-spite of this awareness and all efforts to involve the

    people in all ongoing schemes, we find that during the

    last three de~ades the .effectiveness of partiCipation isstill a distanc.t cry 'aud the',people still feel tbat 'the'

    I gov.ernment gives and we take', 'schemes are of the

    ,government etc.'-=-a feeling of parasitic and dependent '

    outlook. Of COurse there have been commendable

    results in many parts of the country consequent to

    effective participation but perhaps notupto the dcsired

    expectations of the pianners, implementors and tile

    people in general. Is it due to our varying conceptionand mterpretation of community particiPation or is it

    due to lack of proper organisation at the grass-root

    level or failure of such otganisaticmdue to lack of pro-

    p'EimAPS THE SiMPLEST WAY the practical meaningand implicatio!,s of community participation -can

    e explained f~bm the example of a case study on

    alwadi Teachers by Gandhigram Trust, Gandhigram

    Tamil Nadu). ,"After getting training in,child nutri-

    on, child psychology, management of children etc"

    e found the teachers very meticulously applying them-

    elves to the task of l1lIl.Itingthe balwadis efficiently.

    he children looked clean, triple antigrenvaccines were

    ven, the weight of the children was recorded regularly

    very month which,showed increase due to good nutri-

    ous food given to them, the children of COurse(didng, speak well and did learn also alphabets and num-

    ers. A balwadi teacher was absent for about a week.

    n her return, the mothers sUrrounded, the balwadi

    acher accusing' her of having deserted the children

    ho now looked so unclean, untidy, with dishevelled

    air and dirty clothing. A week's absente'resulted in

    e relapse of the

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    ~er leadership? Or is it that we have faiied'to involve

    the people' due to lack of effective communication? ~

    Or is it due to improper selection and employmen1or

    inadequacy of chaniC aaents, animators or ineffective

    functioning of the delivery mechanism? One could

    go in asking many more such questions, No doubt, .

    the lack of effective participation is attributable to the

    cumulative effects of all these or some of these but"we

    cannot just sit back and reflect on these. We have to

    find workable alternatives and make concerted efforts

    at all I'

    tion, education, communication and, feed.back.

    Correct interpretation,' effective application'l and.

    prompt feed-back of this complex process ii, the

    main plank of effective communication. cOlnmU-

    nicatio,n cannot solve all problems but it can help

    when there is mix of orglJDisation, schemes and

    people. Goals of communication should be to

    promotc atl1tudes for greater receptivity to 'c!langc;

    for community integration and co-operative .fri.!lc-

    tioniTIg; for groWth, conJrol .and manageIQ!~ntof

    resources and reduction of tensiort and confuct in

    the co~unity,. QUalities and role .% cqmmlmica-

    tors are relevant and' very important for' ensuring

    participation. Inter-Personal and other' traditional

    and mass media methods of communication ~:lay a

    key role in effecting intrimare participation. ' i Fre-quent dIscussion" demonstratiop., cfuI.logue during

    planning, implementation, monitoring and eval,CJauon

    have been found useful and brmgs both the aniraators

    and the people closer. Wc are .not ouly to iru.prove

    communication fron:.top . dtlwnwards but also' the

    feed-back frOJ!lthe grass-root level to the tOI) and

    alSo horizontally for well coordmated and integrated

    resultsJ The following examples will c1arifY'l the

    need:- .

    (a) In one particular area in North India the

    District Agriculture Officer felt that if the VLWswere concentrating in distribution of. fertilizilrs, it

    meant that they w"re educating farmers for its use,

    telling them about crpp rotal1on patterns, ct,;. II

    theywcre unable to sell fertilizers, it meant. they

    had failed to educate the farmers about ext

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    xtension workers/animators as communicators com-

    els. them to approach the influential and powerful in

    he villages for the sake of targets and quick results

    which poor and weak require time to achieve. These

    omponents (communicators) forming part of the

    elivery mechanism are the weakest link in the chain.

    his kind of communicators cannot ensure people's

    articipation. The increase in the number of special

    rogrammes in the country makes the urgent needor not only effective two-way communication . but

    lso for effective, good and adequate number of

    ommunicators. .We must remember that effective

    ommunication is one of the major instruments for

    ommunity participations, which will make the' people

    eel that the schemes are theirs.

    NExTIMPORTANT.factor for securing people's parti-

    cipation is the formalJon of people's'organisation

    nd group actions. It is important to remember that the

    pecial nature of human relationship in rural milieu

    e people's organisation needs influence, . co-oper~"

    on and. also flexibility in operation -in adopting to

    hanging environments. Environment factors are also

    ot within the control of implementing. agencies.

    or example, implementation of an agriculture. pro- ~.

    ct needs seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation faci-

    ies etc. There may be adequate knowledge and'

    aromunication 'skills' with the farmers. But the

    oject also needs skills and ability' to influence other

    lated activities such as input 'supplies, marketing

    hannels etc., without whose cooperation efforts will

    ot be successful. Similarly the social customs audeliefs which sometimes affect implementation should

    so be taken into account in ensuring cohesion within

    e organisation. Again there are other economic

    nd administrative faclors such as pricing policy, bud-

    eting, 'delayed dccisions etc., which directly or

    directly affect the inter-relationship and inter-action

    ithin the organIsation creating many a time dison-'

    nce, .effectsof which can be reduced through proper

    nd timely co-ordination, whether the organisation is

    rmal or informal, it is preferable to operate inf~-

    alIy. since inter-personal relationship plays animportant role in functioning unlike the people's

    ganisation in organised sectors. It is preferable to

    rm groups, profession/vocation-wise such as.

    parately for agriculture, fisheries, artisans etc., and

    derating all such groups into a larger group or an

    ex body. Since people of same profession/vocation

    ave cultural and work-style affinities, their group

    tions are likely to be cohesive with common interest

    their approach to problems and decision making.

    or social problems, it is advisable to have a com-

    osite body for the village consisting of opinion lea'

    rs, priests, teachers, headmen. etc.. both old and

    ung. People's organisation be it formal or informal

    ves them the power to negotiate and bargain, recog-

    nitiO'll,status and and cohesive strength as a commu-

    nity. It gives them accessibility to information and

    resources, check exploitation and injustices and. effect

    fait distribution of resources. Such organisations

    sho.uld establish linkage with .similar organisation in

    the neighbourh~lOd for gaining additional strength.

    They should develop dedication, good leadership

    within, political' will and administrative competence.

    Leadership plays an important role in the functioningof the organisation. Women's organisation is also

    necessary for development of WOmenand their homes.

    All such organisations should also encourage cultural

    and sports activitie~.

    Effective participation also needs integration of

    components/activities and their proper and timely co-

    ordination. . That is functional relationship between

    inter-acting and mutually supportive clements through

    the administrative process/mechanism (co-ordination)

    to bring about unity of purpose in order to achieve

    common objective. For eXaIuplehealth. literacy, agri-cultural activities should be properly integrated to

    form part of one sch~me.

    Integration envisages that programmes should be

    analysed as system in which. all component processes

    are operatiilg optimally. The integrated .approach

    views community participation as a necessary part of

    education for development in conjunction with orga-

    nisational decentralisation and training' components.

    Purpose of co-ordination is. to achieve smooth and

    efficient functioning, remove bottlenecks, avoid was-

    tages due to overlapping and duplication, ensure betterrelationship between, various components.

    Decentralisation of the decision-making machinery. .

    (depending ,on the area of operations) in aU spheres

    is equally important to develop leadership and confi-

    dence, and to obtain qnick results for participation. If

    the operation is over a large area, then the develop-

    ment is spread over a large number of dispersed rural

    communities and it is only through a decentralised

    approach that it will be qnicker to reach them. While

    a centralised approach reflects the priorities'of the

    plannets, it is the decentralised approach which en-ables the reflections of the priorities and feIt-needs

    ,of the people. This also enables more intimate parti-

    cipati0!l of the people and mobilisation of the re-

    sources. Finally it helps in bOOdingup local'organi-

    sations, enduriug leadership" entrepreneurship in the'

    rural community by working as a school of education;

    in the art of decision-making and administration ..How-

    ever, at all levels in the organisation constant monitor-

    ing and frequent evaluation should be the 'watch-dog'

    of all activities necessitating review/modificatiO'lls of

    the plans from time to time when needed.

    FIELDoJ; RURALDEVELOPMENT.is a highly exploit-

    ed system with strong vested interests which are

    asserting themselves .against any inroads into their

    URUKSHETRA May 16, 1983 '0 17

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    power and operational strncture. There has to be a

    delivery system for all inputs to reach the poor and

    weak of the rural areas which cannot be. cornered

    or appropriate by the vested interests who have. bee.n

    mainly responsible. for not allowing the benefits of

    development reach them (poor). Evolvement of such

    a machinery has to be multidiscipli~ary. There has to

    be an adequate and dedicated extension service prefe,-

    ably locally recruited which can carry tlie . messageand input to the poorest man in the village.

    There has to be a co-ordinate decision-making stmc-

    (Contd .. from Page 9)

    As far as land development banks are co'ncerned,

    there are wide differences among different size groups;

    The big farmers with, their high economic' status are

    getting the loans with loW cost of credit, while mar-

    ginal famiers secure the loan with a relatively higher

    cost of credit. -

    Interestingly, wider differences are found in the case

    of subsidies given by SFDA. ActuaIly, the main ob-

    .iective in establishing this agency wa;; to give s~bsi~ies

    J in the form of interest free non-repayable amount)

    to small and. marginal 'farmers. UsuaIly, the agency

    gives a subsidy of 33.33 per cent to marginal and 25

    per cent to ~mall farmers while the remaining propor-

    ' 1 1 ,

    turc of the poor with sufficient aut9nom)!1for quick

    results. with supportive financial structure: People's

    participation i, a cumulative and continu011s process,

    which has to be nurtured and gradually'! developed

    with the help of the people themselves through c1u,e Irapport, cornmunication'/their organisation;: decentra- -'

    lised and integrated approach so thai the tempo of

    development not only reaches a crescendo but is also

    sustained. I I

    [COURTESY:. World Lutheran Service, i . (India) 1

    I !

    . I I

    - ~!

    tion is met by the sponsoring agencies at 'nominal rates

    of interest. .The findings of the present study furtber

    reveal that the farmers are not getting the subsidies

    . without. pleasing the officials. The problem is too

    severe that to get a subsidy of Rs. 100, the" marginal

    and small .farmers have to incur about Rs. 55 and

    Rs. 52 in the form of transportatiQn costs, pleasing of

    officials, etc., (of which tbe amou'nt spent for pleasing

    of officials is too high). The pertinent qnestion is that

    if a small farmer or marginal farmer spend about 50. ,

    per cent to get the subsidy wbat lie will do ,with the

    re~aining . amonnt. of subsidy or even with ,the 10an.1(either cash or kmd) ? .

    . ,


    " II

    - I,




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    18 '

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    Tribal dev~lopmentthrough .m ilch' aniiual schem es



    Source :-Compiled from Five year pian documents .


    Kakallya UJiiTersily, Warangaf(A.P.) .

    (Rupees in Cror~s)

    Amount spent Percentagefor del Je/ op. ,-

    ment of-


    Total Plan


    Pla n per iod _

    (Five Year Plans)

    2 3 4

    First p 1 a r : t . 1,960 19.83 1.0%

    Second plan 4,672 42.92 0..9%I

    Third plan 8,577

    50.32 0'5%,

    Fourth plan 15,902 .2 80.89 g.4,%

    Amount Sput f or t h e D e ve lo p m en t o f S. T. 's U n de rFj,e Year Plans .


    re mostly backward, poor, illiterate and indebted.

    neconomic ;hifting cnltivation and exploitation of

    orest products characterised their backwardness and

    rodnctivity with yields, insnfficient to meet the basic'quirements of this life. They are tbe chief victims .

    f exploitation by tlie middle men. They do not get

    asonable price for. tlieir forest products.

    URUKSHETRA May 16,.1983


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    ." . .'/ '. .


    . . ,, .

    THE RESPONDENTSreceived two types" of she-buff~"' aloes Le, iocal type of buffaloes (60:i and Murrashe-buffaloes (12). Out of a total iif 72 bene-ficiaries only. 20 beneliciaries were' cons,ulted by the

    officials in the selection of animals at the time of pur-

    chase, These aJiimals were supplied on 50 to 75

    percent of subsidy by the agency.'Onry the 30 ,res-

    pondents felt satisfied with the selection; while rest of

    the 42..:vere very much dissatisfied with :the quality a

    animals supplied to them. Out of 72 animals supplied

    to sample beneliciaries only 52 are alive, and the

    'rest of 20 are said to have died, due to unsuitable

    climatic conditions of the area and lack of knowledge,

    on the part of beneficiaries, as to how to maintain(3) "Pseudo name'" of the district ..

    (4) Palem Agency base paper prepared in ronnection with

    ,the visit of central team.

    Case study of 'Palern' JlTDA

    THE PRESENT,STUDYdeals. with' the impact of

    milch animal scheme directly implemented by theITDA ' "Palem"s._ The "Palem" ..' integrated Tribal

    Development Agency was registered under societies

    registration act in the month of February, 1975. The

    District . Collector is the Chairman and the ProjeCt

    OIlicer ,is the Chief Executive to this ageBc:y. This

    agency is expected to cover the tribal areas ,)f Palem

    diStrict: There are 3,88,7:>2 schednled tribespopu-

    lation in the district Ij'hich.forms about 235 percent

    of total population of the district. About 98 percent

    ,of the total scheduled tribes popnlation. resides in the

    rural and dense forest areas of the distri.ct. This"Pale~" ITDA was established seven years back and

    undertook the programmes in sectors like; Agricul-

    ture, Irrigation, Animals . husbandry, Co-operalion,

    Industries, Education, Medical and Healtt, facilities

    etc, for the development of tribals since its"inception.

    In the animal husbandry ""ctor; 504 cross..bred hei-

    fers, 90, pigs, 6,590 poUltry birds, 725.'milch animals,

    73 breeding bulls and, 745 pairs of plough bullocks

    were supplied benefiting the 3,000' members of sche:

    dnled tribes since its inception. Besides these sche-

    mes, two' milk collection centres a~e. established byincurring a sum of Rs. 10 lakhs. The total cost of

    Rs.. 52.25 lakhs was spent on the animal husbandry

    sector,' Out of 725' milch animal beneliciaries, -10

    ,percent of sample beneficiaries" (i.e. 72) selected,for

    the study. These 71 respondents were selected ran-

    domly in the project area.

    qre strengthened with additional staJl' by State Govern-

    ment and with marginal staff support .from ITDA.

    They will directly execute only some social pro-


    'tribal development efforts

    . To eliminate. the major problems faced by the

    'tribals like indebtedness, bonded labour, u,nemploy-ment, poverty, land alienation and marketing diffi-

    culties, the lTOA will undertake the various deve-

    lopmental 'pr"grarnmes for the' tribals. The

    main tribal development programmes of ITDA

    schemes pertain to agriculture, land develop-'

    ment. horticulture, sericulture, rehabilitation of shift-

    ing cultivatio'n,' minor Jrrigation, schemes of animal'

    husbandry and development of forest-based industries.

    The programmes are implemented through a society

    registered under the Societies Registration Act of 1960

    called the "Integrated Tribal Development Agency",

    consisting of members with the.District Collector as

    the Chairman to the governing body and all the dis-

    trict level heads of general sector departments as

    members and Project Officer as secretary. The

    future' programme of action will also be determined

    at the periodic review meetings. The members of

    iegislative assembly and Parliament have been included

    in the' governing body to ensure people participation,

    ~uflng the plan making. implementation and 'review.

    .' The nUA programmes are gimerally implementedthrough the normal development departments, which

    2 Evaluation of ITDA, Keonjhat .dist.dct Orissa NIRD. Hyderabad: '.

    THE GOVERNMENTOF INDIA felt that there is' a

    strong need to set up special machinery for the'

    effective implementation,of the tribal development pro-

    grammes.. The special multipurpose tribal develop-

    ment blocks were' launched during the Second Five

    Year Plan to bring about rapid improvement in the

    economic and social conditions of ~blils. A.,eording

    to Elwin Conuni1tee report, certain changes wer/!'made '

    and they were renamed as Tribal Development (TO)

    Blocks during the Third Plan Period? After the

    . failure of tribal development blo~k approach to achieve

    the desired' results, the government felt the need for a ..

    comprehensiye' and. integrated strategy for the tribal

    development. with a bid, to give facilities for tribal

    development programmes to all tribal belts i~ the

    country. Hence, the special programmes of Integrated

    Triltal Development Agency were started in 1971 on

    an experimental pilot basis, in the second' half of the

    Fourth Five Year Plan, in tribal Oa of Srikakulam.district in: Andhra'Pradesh, Singhbhum in Bihar aud"

    Ginjam district and Koraput district in Orissa.. Later. . .

    on, two more projects in the Keonjhar aiId l'hulbani

    distriCts of Orissa were initiated. Afterwards some

    more projects were started by government of India in

    the last year of Fourth Five Year Plan, Le" in 1973;74.

    .All these ITDA projects had been sanctioned up to

    31st March, 1979.




    KURUKSHETRAMay 16, 1983

    .' ' j- ..

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    The rest of the' respondents '24 expressed that the

    herne- is useless to them' and they encountered a'

    mber of 'problems., The beneficiaries'. consent waS;.

    taken into consideration at the'tinie 'of purchaso

    nimals:'.", 1

    m properly. The local type of animals. gave betler

    fits with less expenditure in comparison to the murra

    JIaloes; \vhich yield less milk with more expendi-

    . The average milk yield per ailimal . per day

    2 litres from local, buffaloes, wbereas it is 1.75

    es from Murra-buffalDe?, even though this type of

    mals should yield at least 5;to' 6 litres per day.


    The beneficiaries were not 'interested iI< the scheme

    and they were not satis/icd ~ith the quality' of

    animals given to them.


    mining at the development of, target groups must. take into account the problems '

    and the social conditions existing in the ar"" and

    with the target group. Benefits of the programmes

    percol:,t~ to the target groups, only when they are

    accepted by tlie target groups an\l implemented effeC-

    tively by the Government, authorities' concerned.

    'TribaIs' in, our, c'ountry require a special approach to'

    their development ,which is. to be based on a' 'prefect

    understanding of the tribal sensibilities if we are to.,' . ' .. ~ , ~

    success~JIy solve their problems. "


    The respondents thought. that the animals supplied

    by ITDA were free gifts from the bank. The tribals

    are not aware of "the efforts of ITDA or took it as

    granted. Lack of infrastructure facilities is one of rhe

    major problem faced by the beneficiaries, Adequate

    veterinary ,facilities are not provided in these villages

    ,or iir tile ;'earby'villages. But the milch animals reo

    quire intensive medical and health care. Some ex-

    pressed that' the veterinary facilities where available

    does not possesss the required medicines. Supplying

    one milch animal is' "not a proper scheme to generate

    sufficient income to the. fumily. Their economic posi-

    tion is very low and hence tIiey are unable :to main-

    tain the animals properly. They are not having ade-

    '.' quate land to graze the cattle. Hence looking after

    the other needs of beneficiaries very )mportant for

    the success of the programme. The beneficiaries poin-ted outthilt they"couid not 'benefit from this' pro-

    gramme as it was not their traditional profession. The;

    poor' economic conditions of the beneficiaries contri-

    , bilted to the ineffectiveness of the programme. Ac-

    cording to "sOmeof the bendiGiaries they disjJosed off

    the animals~andspent the money for the purpose 'of'

    domestic and social ceremonies:'

    1",', - ,. - . }) Pseudo~name of the village.

    S MENTIONED earlier, 52 animals are alive out of

    12 animals, In' these 52 ,ailimals (~2 respondents)

    y (21) 40 percent of the respondents are benefit-

    with this schemes.; On an average~ income gene-

    ed by ,this,.,.schemeper .respondent is only.Rs: 9 9'month. In "Pally'" villagein the year of 1975, 10

    ch animals were sup'plied to, 10 beneficiaries on 50

    rcent subsidy by the ,Palem ITDA.' Rest of. ,the

    percent on the basis of loan was given by the

    ameena Bank. '.From 1975 to 1978 Le. for three

    ars the responderlts benefited with 'the milch' aili- . - . \ls and they got additional income on an average

    . 120 per month. In the ye"r'1979, ,Grameenank forced, the tribals to, repay the 50pereent loan

    mponenL At that-time the middle nien instigated

    tribals' not iO'iepay the loans to Grameena Bank. .

    ken in'by theseunsc~pu1ous people, thetribals reo'

    ed tei repay'the loan, 'This controversy 'continued

    o .1981. Tribal;' told with bank autborities:,

    don't pay money to bank if you want money you

    y tnke over tbe animals." Tben the authorities of

    ameena Bank"seized the animals 'ani! Jhey adjiIst-

    tlie money to tbe loins of tribals: Then ITDA

    icials were ,not involved, in these matters. After-rds the tribals realised', that they were at' loss due

    tl,e advice of middlemen. "

    I. ~!


    . ' -

    , >



    RUKSHETRA May 16, 1983 21

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    . "

    'Bangladesh : developlnentefforts and social 'change

    MD. ,HABIBURRAHMANAsSociate Professor, pep. of Social.W~rk,RajshahfUni,ersity .(llIangladesh),

    BANGLADESH EMERGED as a new nation in Decem-

    ber, '1971. Though a small country with an. area,

    of 5 5,126 square miles it is among . the most

    densely populated parts of the .world, 'ranking

    eighth in respect of population. Like many other deve-

    loping countries the economy of Bangladesh is predo-

    minantly agricultural. About 90 per cent of the coun-.

    try's population is rural and 75' per cent of these are

    engaged in agriculture 'and related Occupations. The .

    mit put of agriculture makes up more than 56 per.

    cent of the nation's gross domestic product. Agri-culture is -the backbone of the economy of Bangla-. '"

    desh. ", j

    Bangladesh is a new nation with a'l:1old' heritage.

    Tlie Portuguese the Dutch, the French and the Engiish

    all wanted footholds in this part of the sub-coittinent.

    The. British was the last to come-and after trying diffe-

    rent. parts of Indi~, decided to concentrate on Bengal.

    The British and the local trading community jointly

    exploited the Bengali masses upto August, 1947 and

    during Pakistan period the country was exploited by

    West Pakistan. Bangladesh's basic problem is 'limitedland and too much of population that is depende'l:1ton

    it. r:.atura1 resources and raw materials are many and

    varied but weak, energy resources and meagre industri-

    alization have stood in the way of economic develop-

    ment. In addition to these characteristics, before the new

    country emerged in 1971, there was political disorder

    followed by .the war of liberation resulting in human

    and physical losses, So, it had to start from the scratch.

    As there have been enchanting evolution starting ,

    from our. traditional conservative society initially in-'.

    iluenced by colonlal heritage rolling info partition of

    the' sub-continent and' thenAo our liberation war.. I

    Historically speaking, the mai!, formo! wealth in. ,

    . pre-Bllit,sh .Bengal was land and the !'lain economy


    was agriculture. The agricultural economy was organi-'

    sed on the basis oL village communities. In 1830, Sir

    Charles Metcalfe, one of the ablest British officials in

    India, described the village conuiJ.u;Uties a, follows :

    "The vill'age communities are little republic:s, having

    nearly. everything they wam within themsl~lves and

    almost independent of any foreign relations. They

    seem to last where nothing el~e lasts. Dynasty lifter

    dynasty tumbles down; revolution succeeds revolu-

    tjOll; . Hindu, Pathan, Mughal, Mharatha, Sikh

    and ce.keepin,

    etc., as th"y generate substantial employment and income opportunities for the rural poor.


    '1 ', - . . . .~

    . ; . . ,;


    ::".cO? .of /:,

    Ii .


    " ' " " "

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    Fisheries provide a means of livelihood for aboui one million people residing mar coastal areas.

    Vegetable-fanning is not only a paying subsidiary occupation but is a good pastime too ..

    Regd, No .0 (.oN) /39


    IncomeAdding to farmers'

    , ' .~' "v

    I f "it

    AvocatiollS like dairying, pOI:!try, bee-keepiltg etc, can prol'ide employment and steady income

    .,'en to landless labourers who do not own land and are unemployed during the agricultural off-

    seasons, Fisheries affords livelihood to about one milli!l" people IMng lIear coastal areas and lately

    about 4200jishfarmers "al-e been imparted trainillg in modemteclmiques of in!andjish farming:

    Sericlliture and vegetablefarmillg call also be adopted as a subsidiary occupation by small

    farmers al/d Itelps them in raiSing their i/lCOI;resbesides keepillg Ihem gailifully busj"

    (Licensed under U(DN)-54 to post without prepay-

    ment at Civil Lines Post Office, Delhi),