2002 Prentice Hall Emotion, Stress, and Health. 2002 Prentice Hall Emotion, Stress, and Health The...
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2002 Prentice Hall Emotion, Stress, and Health 2002 Prentice Hall Emotion, Stress, and Health The Nature of Emotion Emotion and Culture The Nature of Stress Stress and Emotion Emotions, Stress, and Health: How to Cope 2002 Prentice Hall Emotion A state of arousal involving facial and bodily changes, brain activation, cognitive appraisals, subjective feelings, and tendencies toward action. 2002 Prentice Hall The Nature of Emotion Emotion and the Body Emotion and the Mind 2002 Prentice Hall Emotion and the Body Darwin argued that human facial expressions are a built-in product of evolution; they evolved because they signaled friendly or hostile intent. Certain emotional displays seem to be universal Recognized throughout the world Appear early in development 2002 Prentice Hall Facial Feedback The process by which the facial muscles send feedback to the brain about the basic emotion being expressed. 2002 Prentice Hall Emotion and the Brain Amygdala seems responsible for evaluating sensory information for emotional importance. Cerebral cortex incorporates other information and can override the amygdala 2002 Prentice Hall Emotion and the Mind Two-Factor Theory of Emotion: The theory that emotions depend on both physiological arousal and a cognitive interpretation of that arousal. 2002 Prentice Hall Emotion and Culture The Varieties of Emotion Communicating Emotion Gender and Emotion 2002 Prentice Hall The Varieties of Emotion Primary Emotions: Emotions that are considered to be universal and biologically based; they generally include fear, anger, sadness, joy, surprise, disgust, and contempt. Secondary Emotions: Emotions that are specific to certain cultures. 2002 Prentice Hall Communicating Emotion Display Rules: Social and cultural rules that regulate when, how, and where a person may express (or suppress) emotions. Emotion Work: Expression of an emotion, often because of a role requirement, that a person does not really feel. 2002 Prentice Hall Gender and Emotion Little evidence that one sex feels any of the everyday emotions more often than the other. Major difference between the sexes is more related to how emotions are expressed. 2002 Prentice Hall The Nature of Stress Stress and the Body Stress and the Mind 2002 Prentice Hall Stress and the Body Selye proposed three phases in responding to stressors: Alarm Resistance Exhaustion Prolonged stress can lead to illness. 2002 Prentice Hall Stressors and the Body Noise Bereavement and Loss Work-Related Problems Poverty, Powerlessness, and Racism 2002 Prentice Hall Stress and the Common Cold Risk of common cold increases when: Stress lasts a month or more Stress in interpersonal relationships Stress at work 2002 Prentice Hall Stress and the Mind Optimism and Pessimism The Sense of Control The Benefits of Control The Limits of Control 2002 Prentice Hall The Limits of Control Locus of Control: A general expectation about whether the results of your actions are under your own control (internal locus) or beyond your control (external locus). Primary Control: An effort to modify reality by changing other people, the situation, or events; a fighting back philosophy. Secondary Control: An effort to accept reality by changing your own attitudes, goals, or emotions; a learn to live with it philosophy. 2002 Prentice Hall Stress and Emotion Hostility and Depression Emotional Inhibition 2002 Prentice Hall Personality and Health Type A Personality: Determined to achieve, sense of time urgency, irritable, respond to threat or challenge very quickly, and impatient with obstacles. Type B Personality: Calmer and less intense. Personality type is less predictive of health problems than is hostility. Proneness to anger is a major risk factor 2002 Prentice Hall Hostility and Heart Disease Men with highest hostility scores as young medical students had higher rates of heart disease 25 years later. Hostility is more hazardous than a heavy workload. 2002 Prentice Hall Emotional Inhibition Emotional Inhibition: A personality trait involving a tendency to deny feelings of anger, anxiety, or fear; in stressful situations, physiological responses such as heart rate and blood pressure rise sharply. People who display this trait are at greater risk of becoming ill than people who can acknowledge feelings. 2002 Prentice Hall Emotions, Stress, and Health: How to Cope Cooling Off Solving the Problem Rethinking the Problem Looking Outward 2002 Prentice Hall Cooling Off Relaxation Training: Learning to alternately tense and relax muscles, lie or sit quietly, or meditate by clearing the mind; has beneficial effects by lowering stress hormones and enhancing immune function. Exercise is also an excellent stress reliever. 2002 Prentice Hall Fitness and Health Among those with low stress, fit and less-fit people had similar levels of health problems. Among those with high stress, there were fewer health problems among people who were more fit. 2002 Prentice Hall Rethinking the Problem Effective Cognitive Coping Methods: Reappraising the situation Learning from the experience Making social comparisons Cultivating a sense of humor 2002 Prentice Hall Looking Outward Friends can help with coping: People with network of close connections live longer than those who do not. After heart attack, those with no close contacts were twice as likely to die. Relationships can also cause stress. Giving support to others can be a valuable source of comfort.