1.Introduction to VLSI

download 1.Introduction to VLSI

of 25

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of 1.Introduction to VLSI

  • 8/2/2019 1.Introduction to VLSI

    1/25

    INTRODUCTION TO VLSIRaveesh S, Dept of ECE, SIT,Tumkur

  • 8/2/2019 1.Introduction to VLSI

    2/25

    Transistor

    The First Transistor -1947

    William Shockley, John Bardeen,Walter Brattain of Bell Laboratories

  • 8/2/2019 1.Introduction to VLSI

    3/25

    Planar Transistor

  • 8/2/2019 1.Introduction to VLSI

    4/25

    Field Effect Transistor

    In 1959 M. M. John Atalla and Dawon Kahng ofFairchild at Bell Labs achieved the first successfulinsulated-gate field-effect transistor (FET)

  • 8/2/2019 1.Introduction to VLSI

    5/25

    Chip classification according to number of

    active elements and minimal feature size:

  • 8/2/2019 1.Introduction to VLSI

    6/25

    Why VLSI?

    Integration improves the design

    Lower parasitics = higher speedLower power consumptionPhysically smaller

    Integration reduces manufacturing cost - (almost)no manual assembly

  • 8/2/2019 1.Introduction to VLSI

    7/25

    VLSI Applications

    VLSI is an implementation technology for

    electronic circuitry - analogue or digitalIt is concerned with forming a pattern ofinterconnected switches and gates on the surfaceof a crystal of semiconductorMicroprocessors

    Personal computers Microcontrollers

  • 8/2/2019 1.Introduction to VLSI

    8/25

    VLSI Applications

    Memory - DRAM / SRAM

    Special Purpose Processors - ASICS (CD players,DSP applications)

    Optical Switches

    Has made highly sophisticated control systemsmass-producable and therefore cheap

  • 8/2/2019 1.Introduction to VLSI

    9/25

    Moores Law

    Gordon Moore: co-founder of Intel

    In 1965 Predicted that the number of transistorsper chip would grow exponentially (double every18 months)

  • 8/2/2019 1.Introduction to VLSI

    10/25

    Moores Law

  • 8/2/2019 1.Introduction to VLSI

    11/25

    Moores Law

  • 8/2/2019 1.Introduction to VLSI

    12/25

    Moores Law

  • 8/2/2019 1.Introduction to VLSI

    13/25

    ITRS

    International Technology Roadmap forSemiconductors (ITRS)

    ITRS, is the fifteen-year assessment

    of the semiconductor industrys future

    technology requirements. These future

    needs drive present-day strategies

    for world-wide research and development

    among manufacturers research facilities,

    universities, and national labs.

    ITRS Reports - 2000-2010http://www.itrs.net/home.htmlIn 90s it was known as NTRS (International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors )

    http://www.itrs.net/home.htmlhttp://www.itrs.net/home.html
  • 8/2/2019 1.Introduction to VLSI

    14/25

    ITRS Interconnect Predictions

  • 8/2/2019 1.Introduction to VLSI

    15/25

    What is a Silicon Chip?

    A pattern of interconnected switches and gates on thesurface of a crystal of semiconductor (typically Si)

    These switches and gates are made of areas of n-type silicon areas of p-type silicon areas of insulator lines of conductor (interconnects) joining areas together

    Aluminium, Copper, Titanium, Molybdenum, polysilicon, tungsten

    Connections from the chip to the outside world are madearound the edge of the chip to facilitate connections to otherdevices

  • 8/2/2019 1.Introduction to VLSI

    16/25

    Silicon Wafer

  • 8/2/2019 1.Introduction to VLSI

    17/25

    VLSI - Processors

    Millions of Transistors

    Need computers toVerify layoutCircuit performanceProcess design, etc.

  • 8/2/2019 1.Introduction to VLSI

    18/25

    Design Methodology

    Full Custom DesignDirect control of layout and device parametersLonger design operationFaster OperationMore Dense

    Standard cell DesignEasier to implementLimited cell library selections

  • 8/2/2019 1.Introduction to VLSI

    19/25

    Design Methodology

    Gate Array or

    Programmable Logic array Design

    Fastest design turn aroundReduced performance

  • 8/2/2019 1.Introduction to VLSI

    20/25

    Stages in The CAD process

  • 8/2/2019 1.Introduction to VLSI

    21/25

    Levels of Abstaction

  • 8/2/2019 1.Introduction to VLSI

    22/25

    CAD TOOLS

    Cadence, Synopsys, Mentor Graphics are the major

    (Electronic Design Automation) EDA software toolvendors.Xilinx, Altera, Actel holds the major market share inFPGA/CPLD.Tanner, Microwind.

  • 8/2/2019 1.Introduction to VLSI

    23/25

    Assignment-1

    Q1.Compare and contrast the following technologies

    BJT and CMOS

    Q2. Write short notes on ITRS

  • 8/2/2019 1.Introduction to VLSI

    24/25

    TEXT Books:

    Introduction to VLSI Circuits andSystems - John P Uyemura,

    John Wiley 2002

    Basic VLSI Design Douglas A.Pucknell & Kamran Eshraghian,

    PHI 3rd Edition (Original Edition 1994), 2005

  • 8/2/2019 1.Introduction to VLSI

    25/25

    REFERENCE Books:

    Principles of CMOS VLSI Design-Neil H. E. Weste and Kamran

    Eshraghian, 2nd edition, Addison-Wesley, 1993.

    CMOS Digital Integrated circuits Sung-Mo Kang, Yusuf Leblebici,

    Third edition, TMH