©1999 Prentice Hall Emotion Chapter 11. ©1999 Prentice Hall Emotion Defining Emotion....

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Transcript of ©1999 Prentice Hall Emotion Chapter 11. ©1999 Prentice Hall Emotion Defining Emotion....

  • EmotionChapter 11

    1999 Prentice Hall

  • EmotionDefining Emotion.Elements of Emotion 1: The Body.Elements of Emotion 2: The Mind.Elements of Emotion 3: The Culture.Putting the Elements together: Emotion and Gender.

    1999 Prentice Hall

  • EmotionA state of arousal involving facial and body changes, brain activation, cognitive appraisals, subjective feelings, and tendencies toward action, all shaped by cultural rules.

    1999 Prentice Hall

  • Elements of Emotion 1: The BodyPrimary and secondary emotions.The face of emotion.The brain and emotion.Hormones and emotion.Detecting emotions, Does the body lie?

    1999 Prentice Hall

  • Elements of Emotion 1: The BodyPrimary emotionsEmotions considered to be universal and biologically based. They generally include fear, anger, sadness, joy, surprise, disgust, and contempt.Secondary emotionEmotions that develop with cognitive maturity and vary across individuals and cultures.Three biological areas of emotion are facial expressions, brain regions and circuits, and autonomic nervous system.

    1999 Prentice Hall

  • Universal Expressions of EmotionFacial expressions for primary emotions are universal.Even members of remote cultures can recognize facial expressions in people who are foreign to them.Facial feedback.Process by which the facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic emotion being expressed.Infants are able to read parental expressions.Facial expression can generate same expressions in others, creating mood contagion.

    1999 Prentice Hall

  • The Face of AngerAnger is universally recognized by geometric patterns on the faceIn each pair, the left form seems angrier than the right form

    1999 Prentice Hall

  • Facial Expressions in Social ContextAcross and within cultures, agreement often varies on which emotion a particular facial expression is revealing.People dont usually express their emotion in facial expressions unless others are around.Facial expressions convey different meanings depending on their circumstances.People often use facial expressions to lie about their feelings as well as to express them.

    1999 Prentice Hall

  • The Brain and EmotionThe amygdala.Responsible for assessing threat. Damage to the amygdala results in abnormality to process fear.Left prefrontal cortex Involved in motivation to approach others.Damage to this area results in loss of joy.Right prefrontal cortex Involved in withdrawal and escape. Damage to the area results in excessive mania and euphoria.

    1999 Prentice Hall

  • Hormones and EmotionWhen experiencing an intense emotion, 2 hormones are released.EpinephrineNorepinephrineResults in increased alertness and arousal.At high levels, it can create the sensation of being out of control emotionally.

    1999 Prentice Hall

  • The Autonomic Nervous System

    1999 Prentice Hall

  • Detecting Emotions: Does the Body Lie?Polygraph testing relies on autonomic nervous system arousal.Typical measures:Galvanic Skin ResponsePulse, blood pressureBreathingFidgeting

    1999 Prentice Hall

  • Polygraph TestsEmpirical support is weak and conflicting.Test is inadmissible in most courts.It is illegal to use for most job screening.Many government agencies continue to use for screening.

    1999 Prentice Hall

  • Elements of Emotion 2: The MindHow thoughts create emotions.The two factor theory of emotion.Attributions and emotions.

    1999 Prentice Hall

  • Two-factor Theory of EmotionPhysiological arousalSweaty palmsIncreased heart raterapid breathingCognitive LabelAttribute source of arousal to a causeTo have an emotion, both factors are required

    1999 Prentice Hall

  • Attributions and EmotionsPerceptions and attributions are involved in emotions.How one reacts to an event depends on how he or she explains it.For example, how one reacts to being ignored or winning the silver instead of the gold medal.Philosophy of life is also influential.

    1999 Prentice Hall

  • Elements of Emotion 3: The CultureCulture and emotional variation.The rules of emotional regulation.Display rules.Body language.Emotion work.

    1999 Prentice Hall

  • Culture and Emotional VariationCulture determines what people feel angry, sad, lonely, happy, ashamed or disgusted about.Some cultures have words for specific emotions unknown to other cultures.Ex. SchadenfreudeSome cultures dont have words for emotions that seem universal to others.Tahitian and sadnessDifferences in secondary emotions appear to be reflected in differences in languages.

    1999 Prentice Hall

  • The Rules of Emotional RegulationDisplay RulesWhen, where, and how emotions are to be expressed or when they should be squelched.Body LanguageThe nonverbal signals of body movement, posture and gaze that people constantly express.Emotion Work.Acting out an emotion we do not feel or trying to create the right emotion for the occasion.

    1999 Prentice Hall

  • Putting it all together: Emotion and GenderPhysiology and intensity.Sensitivity to other peoples emotions.Cognitions.Expressiveness.Factors which affect expressiveness.Emotion work.

    1999 Prentice Hall

  • Putting the Elements Together: Emotion and GenderPhysiology and intensityWomen recall emotional events more intensely and vividly than do men.Men experience experience emotional events more intensely than do women.Conflict is physiologically more upsetting for men than women.

    1999 Prentice Hall

  • Possible reasons for differences in physiology and intensity.Males autonomic nervous system is more reactive than females.Men are more likely to rehearse angry thoughts which maintains anger.Women are more likely to ruminate which maintains depression.

    1999 Prentice Hall

  • Sensitivity to Other Peoples EmotionsFactors which influence ones ability to read emotional signals:The sex of the sender and receiver.How well the sender and receiver know each other.How expressive the sender is.Who has the power.Stereotypes and expectations.

    1999 Prentice Hall

  • Cognitions.Men and women appear to differ in the types of every day events that provoke their anger.Women become angry over issues related to their partners disregard.Men become angry over damage to property or problems with strangers.

    1999 Prentice Hall

  • ExpressivenessIn North America women:Smile more than men.Gaze at listeners more.Have more emotionally expressive faces.Use more expressive body movements.Touch others more.Acknowledge weakness and emotions more.Compare to women, men only express anger to strangers more.

    1999 Prentice Hall

  • Factors Influencing Emotional ExpressivenessGender roles.Cultural norms.The specific situation.

    1999 Prentice Hall

  • Emotion Work and Gender.Women work hard at appearing warm, happy and making sure others are happy.Men work hard at persuading others they are stern, aggressive and unemotional.Why?Gender roles and status.

    1999 Prentice Hall

    EmotionPrepared by Krista D. Forrest, Ph.D. These slides 2002 Prentice Hall Psychology Publishing.

    To print the slides in black and white using the original template (Comet), check the pure black and white box in the print dialog.1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotionFigure 9.8 from:Kassin, S. (1998). Psychology, second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Source:Aronoff, J., Woike, B. A., & Hyman, L. M. (1992). Which are the stimuli in facial dislpays of anger and happiness? Configurational bases of emotion recognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 1050-1066.1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotionFigure 9.5 from:Kassin, S. (1998). Psychology, second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Source:

    1999 Prentice HallEmotionFigure 9.6 from:Kassin, S. (1998). Psychology, second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Source:

    1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotionFigure 9.11 from:Kassin, S. (1998). Psychology, second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Source:Schachter, S. (1964). The interaction of cognitive and physiological determinants of emotional state. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 1, 49-80. New York: Academic Press.1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice Hall