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Transcript of 192620010 Mobile & Wireless Networking heijenk/mwn/slides/Lecture-1.pdf · PDF...

  • Mobile and Wireless Networking 2013 / 2014

    192620010 Mobile & Wireless Networking

    Lecture 1: Introduction & Wireless Transmission (1/2)

    [Schiller, Section 1 & Section 2.1 - 2.5]

    Geert Heijenk

  • Mobile and Wireless Networking 2013 / 2014

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    Outline of Lecture 1

    q Introduction q About the course Mobile & Wireless Networking q History q Current Wireless Technologies q Important trends

    q Wireless Transmission (1/2) q Frequencies q Signals q Antennas q Signal Propagation q Multiplexing

  • Mobile and Wireless Networking 2013 / 2014

    Why Mobile and Wireless Networking?

    Largest SW/HW/networked system Largest number of subscribers Mobile devices dominate the Internet Mobile applications dominate Internet

    usage New possibilities, new threats Technology fully integrated into everybody's life almost 24/7,

    almost anywhere

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    Mobile & Wireless Networking

    q Mobile q user can use network services while moving

    l w.r.t. point of attachment to network l Usually user is moving with his/her networking device

    q Wireless q communications without using a wire

    l directly between two user nodes, or l (often) between user node and access point connected to the fixed

    (wired) network

    q Networking q roughly, all architectures, protocols, and algorithms at the

    l link layer (mostly medium access control, MAC) l network layer, and l transport layer l (we will briefly address physical layer as well)

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    What is different in wireless networks?

    q Higher loss-rates q Restrictive spectrum regulations q Lower transmission rates q Higher delays, higher jitter q Lower security q Shared and unbound medium q Mobility

    q change of point of attachment to network q how to find a user / device

    q Limitations of access devices q battery power

  • Mobile and Wireless Networking 2013 / 2014

    Course Outline (Mobile & Wireless Networking, M&WN)

    Basic principles: Physical layer: propagation, multiplexing, modulation, spread

    spectrum, OFDM MAC layer: hidden terminals, medium access, random access,

    CDMA, Hybrid ARQ Cellular concepts: cell layout, interference Dealing with mobility: handover, mobility management Transport layer: problems with TCP over wireless Ad-hoc networks: problems of ad-hoc routing

    Systems: Cellular: UMTS, LTE Wireless LAN: IEEE 802.11a/b/g/e/n/ac Low power / short range systems: Bluetooth, Zigbee Mobile IP: + Hierarchical Mobile IP, Fast Handovers for Mobile IP Ad-hoc routing: DSDV, DSR, AODV

    6

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    Positioning Mobile & Wireless Networking

    Mobile &

    Wireless Networking (2)

    advanced: ad-hoc networks

    Mobile Radio

    Communications

    focus on physical layer

    Telematica Systemen

    & Toepassingen

    Telematica Netwerken

    Mobile &

    Wireless Networking (1)

    networking overview

    networking in-depth

    focus on link- and network layer of m&w networks

    Module: Network Systems

  • Mobile and Wireless Networking 2013 / 2014

    Course organization

    See: http://www.cs.utwente.nl/~heijenk/mwn

    8

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    Outline of Lecture 1

    q Introduction q About the course Mobile & Wireless Networking q History q Current Wireless Technologies q Important trends

    q Wireless Transmission (1/2) q Frequencies q Signals q Antennas q Signal Propagation q Multiplexing

  • Mobile and Wireless Networking 2013 / 2014

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    History of wireless communication

    Many people in history used light for communication Discovery of electromagnetic waves

    q 1831 Faraday demonstrates electromagnetic induction q 1864 J. Maxwell theory of electromagnetic fields, wave equations q 1886 H. Hertz demonstration of the wave character

    of electrical transmission Hertz: "It's of no use whatsoever[...] this is just an experiment that proves Maestro Maxwell was right - we just

    have these mysterious electromagnetic waves that we cannot see with the naked eye. But they are there.

    1895 Guglielmo Marconi, first demonstration of wireless telegraphy (long wave)

    1907 Commercial transatlantic connections 1915 Wireless voice transmission New York - San Francisco 1920 Marconi, discovery of short waves 1928 many TV broadcast trials (across Atlantic, color TV, TV news) 1933 Frequency modulation (E. H. Armstrong)

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    History of wireless communication II

    1956 First mobile phone system in Sweden 1972 B-Netz in Germany 1979 NMT at 450MHz (Scandinavian countries) 1982 Start of GSM-specification

    goal: pan-European digital mobile phone system with roaming

    1992 Start of GSM 1997 Wireless LAN - IEEE802.11 1998 Specification of UMTS

    (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) 1998 Iridium: portable satellite telephony 1999 IEEE Standard 802.11b, 2.4 GHz, 11 Mbit/s

    Bluetooth, 2.4 GHz, < 1 Mbit/s

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    History of wireless communication III

    2001 Start of 3G (Japan) UMTS trials in Europe

    2002 Start of UMTS in Europe IEEE 802.11g mobile subscribers overtake fixed-line subscribers worldwide 1 billion cellular subscribers

    2004 UMTS launch in Netherlands 2007 Introduction of iPhone 2009 IEEE 802.11n standard

    (December) First LTE Network (Stockholm / Oslo) 2012 6 billion cellular subscribers 2013 LTE launch in Netherlands (KPN, February, Amsterdam)

  • Mobile and Wireless Networking 2013 / 2014

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    Current wireless technologies (1/2)

    q Telecommunication Systems q initial / primary service: mobile voice telephony q large coverage per access point

    (100s of meters - 10s of kilometers) q low - moderate data rate

    (10s of kbit/s 10s of Mbits/s) q Examples: GSM, UMTS, LTE

    q WLAN q initial service: wireless ethernet extension q moderate coverage per access point

    (10s of meters - 100s of meters) q moderate - high data rate

    (Mbits/s - 100s of Mbits/s) q Examples: IEEE 802.11b, a, g, n, ac.

    q Short-range q Other systems

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    Current wireless technologies (2/2)

    Short-range q direct connection between devices (< 10s of meters) q typical low power usage q examples: Bluetooth, ZigBee

    Other systems q Satellite systems

    l global coverage, l applications

    audio/TV broadcast; positioning personal communications

    q Broadcast systems l satellite/terrestrial l DVB, DAB (Support of high speeds for mobiles)

    q Fixed wireless access l several technologies (DECT, WLAN, IEEE802.16 (11-60GHz))

    q DECT l Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunication

    q TETRA l Terrestrial Trunked Radio l Netherlands: C2000 system

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    Standardization

    q 3GPP (3G partnership project) q GSM q UMTS q LTE q Specifications: http://www.3gpp.org/-specifications-

    q IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) q 802.11 (Wireless LAN: WiFi) q 802.15 (Wireless PAN: Bluetooth, Zigbee) q 802.16 (Broadband Wireless Access: WiMAX)) q Standards: http://standards.ieee.org/about/get/802/802.html

    q IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) q Mobile IP q TCP q AODV q Requests for Comments (RFCs): http://www.ietf.org/rfc.html

  • Mobile and Wireless Networking 2013 / 2014

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    Outline of Lecture 1

    q Introduction q About the course Mobile & Wireless Networking q History q Current Wireless Technologies q Important trends

    q Wireless Transmission (1/2) q Frequencies q Signals q Antennas q Signal Propagation q Multiplexing

  • Mobile and Wireless Networking 2013 / 2014

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    Mobile subscriptions

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    100

    2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

    Per 1

    00 inhabitants

    Global ICT developments, 2001-2011 Mobile-cellular telephone subscrip=ons

    Individuals using the Internet

    Fixed-telephone subscrip=ons

    Ac=ve mobile-broadband subscrip=ons

    Fixed (wired)-broadband subscrip=ons

    Source: ITU World Telecommunication /ICT Indicators database

  • Mobile and Wireless Networking 2013 / 2014

    Mobile-cellular subscriptions total and per 100 inhabitants

    18

    !"#$%&'(')*""*$+'#$)*",-.,""/"!0'%/)%.0*1&*$+%'2$0"32*3,!"#$%#'()*+,$-(.+/0*#1$20#$"(3#$/($3(0#$/"2+$/"0##$4.20/#01$(5$2''$3(6*'#7-#''.'20$1.61-0*)/*(+1

    8(6*'#7-#''.'20$1.61-0*)/*(+19$/(/2'$2+%$)#0$:;;$*+"26*/2+/19$

  • Mobile and Wireless Networking 2013 / 2014

    19

    18

    16

    14

    12

    10

    8

    6

    4

    2

    0

    1940

    1945

    1950

    1955

    1960

    1965

    1970

    1975

    1980

    1985

    1990

    1995

    2000

    2005

    Sales/Yr

    Yr

    Ubiquitous computing(one person, many computers)

    Mainframe (one computer, many people)PC (one person, one computer)

    A proliferation of small, low-cost, embedded devices incorporating computing and communication capabilities Moving towards pervasive computing

    Source: Presentation by Marc Weiser Nomadic iss