17th CENTURY IRELAND
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- 1. Christianity andIdentity in IrelandIreland in the 17 th Century
2. IV. THE END OF GAELICIRELAND Suppression of Gaelic earls in Munster leftGaelic Ulster dangerously exposed Hugh ONeill, earl of Tyrone (1550-1516) Most powerful, and last of the great Gaeliclords Upbringing in England and the Pale Loyal to the Crown Represses Scots-Gaelic colonisation innorth Ulster Militarises Ulster Recognised the fragility of his prefermentby the Crown and the implications of thenew ideology Would have to choose am I an Englishearl or a Gaelic cheiftan? Actions of ODonnells and Maguiresforced his hand Ulster at War: 1594-1603 (Nine Year War) 3. Initially successful: Ford of Biscuits (1594) Clontibret (1595) Yellow Ford (1598) Couldnt take towns Emboldened by initial success Appeals to Spain and Pope Why might this have been a mistake? Spanish Armada, 1588 1599 appeals to Old English: Faith andFatherland Draws up demands Lord Mountjoy appointed LD, brings20,000 men to Kinsale to meet Spanishsoldiers Tyrone surrenders, but given generousterms However, the age of Gaelic rule is over 4. Flight of the Earls, September 1607 5. James I/VI King of Scotlandfrom 1567 1603, becomes kingof England andIreland Plantation of Ulsterbegan in 1608 6. Plantation of Ulster Lowland vs. Highland 1493, James IV breaks Lordship of the Isles As 16th century progresses Gaelic world seen as culturally degenerate "void of the knawledge and feir of God" and guilty of "all kynd of barbarous and bestile cruelteis 1609, Statutes of Iona Escheated lands presentsJames I/VI with opportunitydrive a wedge into the Gaelicworld Flight of Earls, 4th September1607, Privy Council agree toplantation on 29th September 7. Plantation of Ulster Unlike colonisation under Maryand Elizabeth Ulster Plantation isprivatised County of Coleraine granted toCompanies of the City of London Private Undertakers Servitors Deserving Irish, 20% Fortified house and 24 youngProtestant men per 1000 acres Part of a wider transatlantic colonialproject (c.f. Virginia Company, 1609) Driven by Ideology:Providentialism Often investors were Puritans 8. Religion and Plantation Reformation had failed inIreland Established Church wasmarginal Majority of 1.2 millionpopulation worship inunderground Catholicmovement But: New English werePuritan and morestridently anti-Catholic James Ussher, 1581-1656 9. Religion and Plantation Calvinist 15 Articles (1615) Ussher brings reformed bishopsfrom Scotland to Ulster Andrew Knox, Raphoe Robert Echlin, Down andConnor 1622, 64 Scots Presbyterianministers serving in CoI 1625, Ussher appointedArchbishop of Armagh 1000s of mostly poor ScotsPresbyterians colonised Antrimand Down Hated official church, rawPresbyterianism 10. Scots Presbyterians serving in Church of Ireland 1613 Edward Brice @ Broadisland 1615 Robert Cunningham @ Hollywood 1619 John Ridge, an English dissenter, @ Antrim 1619 Josias Welsh, the grandson of John Knox, at Templepatrick 1621 Rev John Hubbard brought his congregation from London toCarrickfergus 1623 James Glendinning replaced Hubbard @ Carrickfergus 1623 Robert Blair @ Bangor 1625 George Dunbar a former minister at Ayr and prisoner in Blackness Castlesettled in Larne 1625 James Hamilton, nephew of Lord Claneboye, @ Ballywalter 1627 Andrew Stewart @ Donegore 1630 John Livingston at Kilinchy 11. Six Mile Water Revival James Glendinning incumbent of Carnmoney and a lecturer at Carrickferguslargely English. Rev. Robert Blair invited Glendinning to move to Oldstone (Muckamore)among Scots. Glendinning underwent transformation instances of people swooning and of high breathing and panting Welsh, Blair, Ridge, Cunningham and Hamilton joined in the revival thatswept the river valley of the Six Mile Water. Glendinning left the district in 1630. Ill and intending to visit the seven churches of Asia. In 1630s a monthly meetings sometimes with 1,500 attending Not evangelical, linked to Presbyterian doctrines of election and predestination Helped to sustain a poor people in a tough pioneer environment; gave thempurpose and galvanised their identity 12. James I/VI Policy in Ireland Overall, things settled. Of James overall legacy he told LordDeputy Chichester: the settling of religion, the introducing civility, order, and government amongst a barbarous and unsubdued people, to be acts of piety and glory, and worthy always of a Christian prince to endeavour. 1628: Graces OE and NE to provide 120,000 over three years and not support France and Spain No Oath of Supremacy No imposition of Recusancy fines Guaranteed security of titles held for more than 60years Major advance for policy in Ireland 13. Charles I, 1625-1649 Background: 30 years war Religious tensions in Europe at all time high; radical Puritanism gains voice in England Emphasized divine right of kings Financially impoverished Concentrates power in Privy Council, refuses to call Parliament William Laud and Laudianism To Puritans, Laudianism = Catholicism in disguise 14. Charles I Policy in Ireland Thomas Wentworth appointed LD,1632-1639 Ireland is corrupt; no allies, just interests New English: investigates Richard Boyle and recovers money Old English: promises to implement graces in return for more money but backtracks once subsidies secured Gaelic Ireland: confiscated north Wicklow for himself Presbyterian Ulster: creates court of high commission, implements Laudian reform, deprives some Presbyterian CoI clergy of their living, prosecutes others Major improvements to infrastructure,manages to make Ireland profitable, butat huge cost 15. Irish Repercussions of Charlesfailed Scottish Policy 1637, institution ofScottish Book of CommonPrayer Does not go down well! 1638, Scottish NationalCovenant 300,000 signatures Modelled on OTcovenants, any problemwith this? 16. Irish Repercussions of Charlesfailed Scottish Policy Covenant widely subscribedSir George Radcliffe (1640to in Scots-Ulster also ...many thousands in the North never took This alarms an already the oath... they will shortly return, to any that dares question them, such an answersuspicious Dublin Castle as Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, made Wentworth issues Blackto Sir John Comyn, who, charging him with breach of oath, taken atOathWestminster to King Edward, replies, Further helps to establish a with cleaving his head in two.None isdistinctive Ulster-Scottishso dim-sighted, but sees the general inclination of the Ulsteridentity Scots to the covenant: and God How would Gaelic and Old forbid they should tarry there till the Earl of Argyll brings them arms to cut ourEnglish Ireland have felt aboutthroats...the enthusiasm shown by theUlster Presbyterians to theCovenant? 17. Charles I Policy in Ireland British network of radical Puritans(particularly William Pym and JohnClotworthy) see the Scottish crisis as anopportunity to accomplish their longcherished aim Arrest of Laud Church reform Godly Government True to the Covenant, Scottish mobilisean army, Bishops War, 1639-40 Truce of Newcastle Wentworth raises an Irish catholic armyof 9000 to support Charles Charles is forced to call Parliament andcalls Wentworth to London to managetroublesome Puritan faction 18. Ulster Rising/Rebellion Puritan long Parliament after1641 Gaelic Lords, headed by Sir PhelimONeill use Wentowrths army tomount rebellion Soon deteriorates into bittersectarian fighting Portadown drownings Islandmagee massacre Sir John Temples Irish Rebellion(1646) claimed 120,000 Protestantskilled. More than are actually in the country. Perhaps accurate number 3-5,000 Propaganda has enormous impactin Britian confirms Puritansworst fears!!