16ii Protestant Reformation
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The Medici family in Florence, Italy was an example of a wealthy ruling family. They supported artists as patrons and pushed the Renaissance along.
Rome became more political during this time. The Popes sent ambassadors to other nations, collected taxes and tithes, and fought wars.
The worst of them was Pope Alexander, who bribed the cardinals to vote for him. He then let his family spend the church’s money.
His monument to himself.
These powerful people, although corrupt, supported artists and
architects. With more opportunities, art thrived.
Renaissance artists tried to create images as lifelike as possible (no more landscapes!) The best were Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo Buonarroti, and Raphael Santi.
Chapter 16, Section ii, N. Renais.
Northern Europe was eager to imitate Italy’s progress and began to copy what Italy was doing.
The spread of ideas has always been facilitated by trade, but a new invention, Johannes Gutenberg’s printing press (1456), helped ideas spread faster.
More northern progress:
• New literary styles.
• Growth of an educated middle class.
• New architecture.
• Study of new ideas in medicine, botany, and navigation.
There was a growth of humanism in the north as well, but this took the form of Christian Humanism. Their goal was to purify the corrupt Church.
(All individuals have value and can improve, even corrupt Church officials.)
The most famous Christian Humanist was Desiderius Erasmus, who encouraged the study of Greek and Hebrew and he attacked the corruption of Church officials.
Northern art made as much progress as the Italians did. They learned to paint with oils (no more eggs.) The best among them were Jan van Eyck, and Pieter
Jan van Eyck on perspective.
Old style, before oils and perspective.
New style: Raphael’s portrait of Julius II.
Most people avoided England until the end of the War of the Roses. Only then did England participate in the Renaissance. They
contributed that Shakespeare guy.
I’d rather have mammograms than buy or sell slaves!!
Chapter 16, Section iii, Prot. Refor.
The Renaissance values of humanism and secularism led to criticism of the Church’s extravagance and corruption.
“Protestant” means people who believe that they can interpret God’s word on their own, without the Pope’s interpretation.
Martin Luther: German monk,
priest, and general
Jan Hus and John Wycliffe translated the Bible into native languages. Of course, the Catholic Church was angry about this and tried to kill them. They dug up Wycliffe’s body and burned it.
In the tradition of Hus and Wycliffe, the German monk Martin Luther
read Paul’s epistle to the Romans: “He who through faith is righteous
This would be the foundation for “justification by faith.”
Luther found the Church’s actions detestable. Pope Leo X tried to raise money by selling church positions (simony) and sold
indulgences. Luther was mad!
The Church also began to sell “get out of Hell free” documents for dead relatives (Your dad was a sinner? No problem! You want to sin? No problem! Have a child buy you out of Hell after you die!)
“Once you hear the money’s ring, the soul from purgatory is free to spring!” This was a popular jingle. According to the Church, purgatory was where the soul would wait until it was made fit for heaven.
Luther, a professor and priest in Wittenberg, Germany, preached against these practices.
Rodin’s “Baptist Preaching”
In 1517, he nailed a list of 95 grievances (the 95 Theses) on the door of Wittenberg Castle (your book says “church”.)
The Pope and Luther argued a lot!You’re goin’ down Luther!
Talk’s cheap Vatican boy!
In 1520, Pope Leo X formally condemned Luther and banned his writings. Luther was excommunicated, although to him this was no big deal, cause he believed that salvation came through faith.
It’s all about me!
A council of German princes was then held in Worms to try to bring Luther back into the Church. It didn’t work. He was declared an outlaw and a heretic.
Luther was kept safe by a friend, Prince Frederick of Saxony. While in hiding, he translated the New Testament into German.
The fundamental question was whether or not a person could read the Bible for themselves or whether they needed the Pope to interpret scripture for them. (It’s hard to say unless you already know what the Bible says about it.) Is it just a form of control by the Church?
While Catholicism stressed the importance of church teaching and good works, “Lutheranism” stressed the Bible’s authority and faith.
“I do what I want!”
Do what the Bible says!
Lutheran services were centered on Biblical preaching in a native language rather than on tradition and rituals in Latin (which no one understood.)
Tradition? If tradition was so important, you should have stuck with Judaism! Might
as well be a Protestant!
Luther said that the clergy was not a hierarchy, but a community of believers and that all jobs could serve God, not just the priesthood.
The common people rose up to kill their princes now that they were all “equal” in the sight of God. Luther backed the princes when they violently put down the rebellion.
Chapter 16, Section iv, Spread of Pr.
Other reformers spoke up, like Huldrych Zwingli (I’m not making this up!) in Switzerland. He wanted to establish a theocracy.
In the mid-1500’s, John Calvin established a reform group in Switzerland. Calvin said that God knew and controlled everything. Therefore, He chose who was going to heaven = predestination.
This Calvinism helped promote the Protestant faith among Western Europeans.
With Protestants and Catholics disagreeing about theology so ardently and each claiming that God was on their side, war was inevitable.
The 30 Years’ War was a mess. Protestant and Catholic armies fought back and forth across Germany, Switzer
-land, and north-
•Fighting lasts for 30 years
•1/3 of the population of the German states died.
•War ends with the Peace of Westphalia
•France gains territory in Spain and Germany
•Hapsburgs lost most of their power
•Germany divided into 360 separate states
Other consequences of the 30 Years War (1618-1648):
•New military strategies (pikes, mounted firearms, mobile artillery, muskateers with matchlocks)
•Death of the King of Sweden
•New militaristic mind set of European rulers
Gustavus Adolphus (Gustav II Adolf), King of Sweden
Each side agreed to finally stop the fighting and that each Prince could determine the religion in their own land. This was the Treaty of Westphalia! Most important item this semester!!!
The Treaty of Westphalia established the concept of the modern nation state, where there are
fixed boundaries. This marks the end of
Empires and the end of the Medieval Period.