15 Seater Commuter Aircraft

Click here to load reader

  • date post

    19-Sep-2014
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    223
  • download

    11

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of 15 Seater Commuter Aircraft

DESIGN OF 15 SEATER COMMUTER AIRCRAFT (PART I AERODYANMIC DESIGN) By BALA ABINESH.C KARTHIK.K PRADEEP KUMAR.S SAI SSHRIMAN.M YADHAVAN.U (42007101009) (42007101023) (42007101033) (42007101041) (42007101306)

Under the guidance of

Dr. K. Padmanaban Professor, Department of Aeronautical Engineering, Tagore Engineering College

A report submitted to the Department of Aeronautical Engineering, Tagore Engineering College in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Engineering

ANNA UNIVERSITY, Chennai. April 2010

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the design project report titled DESIGN OF 15 SEATER COMMUTER AIRCRAFT being submitted by BALA ABINESH.C KARTHIK.K PRADEEP KUMAR.S SAI SSHRIMAN.M YADHAVAN.U (42007101009) (42007101023) (42007101033) (42007101041) (42007101306)

to the Department of Aeronautical Engineering, Tagore Engineering College Chennai, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Engineering (Aeronautical Engineering) is a bonafide record of the work carried out by this group under my guidance and supervision in the even semester of the academic year 2009-2010.

Dr.K.PADMANABAN, Professor, Dept. of Aeronautical Engineering, Tagore Engineering College, Chennai - 600 048.

Dr.P.BASKARAN, Professor and Head, Dept. Of Aeronautical Engineering, Tagore Engineering College, Chennai - 600 048.

INTRODUCTIONTYPE: Twin-turboprop, 15 seater commuter aircraft. DESIGN FEATURES: Low mounted unswept wing, circular section pressurised fuselage, conventional tail with fixed incidence tail plane. Wing section, NACA 631412, incidence at 1.88 with a dihedral of 3. FLYING CONTROLS: Conventional. Split flaps at the trailing edge of the wing. LANDING GEAR: Retractable, tricycle arrangement with nose wheel. All units retract into the fuselage. Tyre pressure & size: Main wheel = 90 p.s.i Main wheel = 27 7.25 in2 Nose wheel = 40 p.s.i. Nose wheel = 19 POWERPLANT: Two PRATT & WHITNEYCANADA PT6A-13A turboprop engines each rated 750 shp, driving a 3 blade variable pitch propeller of diameter 3m. ACCOMODATION: Two pilots in flight deck, Main cabin accommodates one attendant and 15 passengers in pressurised and air-conditioned environment. 6.25 in2

BASIC SPECIFICATIONS OF 15 SEATER COMMUTER AIRCRAFT

CRUISE VELOCITY PAYLOAD RANGE CRUISE ALTITUDE

: 461 km/hr : 15 passengers : 2000 km : 4 km

DETAILED SPECIFICTIONSDIMENSIONS:WING SPAN LEGNTH OF FUSELAGE FUSELAGE DIAMETER WING AREA HORIZONTAL TAIL AREA VERTICAL TAIL AREA WING ASPECT RATIO ROOT CHORD OF WING TIP CHORD OF WING : : : : : : : : : 15.58 m 13.44 m 2.7 m 27 m2 4.79 m2 4.05 m2 9 2.475 m 0.99 m 1.732 m 2000 N/ m2

MEAN AERODYNAMIC CHORD : WING LOADING TAIL ASPECT RATIO HORIZONTAL TAIL VERTICAL TAIL WING AEROFOIL TAIL AEROFOIL PROPELLER DIAMETER : : : : : :

4 1.5 NACA 631412 NACA 0009 (both vertical and horizontal tails) 3m

WEIGHTS:TAKEOFF WEIGHT FUEL WEIGHT ENGINE WEIGHT PAYLOAD WEIGHT : : : : 54,249 N 14,479 N 3060.72 N 15,000 N

PERFORMANCE:MAXIMUM SPEED CRUISE SPEED RANGE ENDURANCE CRUISE ALTITUDE RUNWAY LENGTH RUNWAY LOADING RATE OF CLIMB MAXIMUM TIME TO CLIMB TO CRUISE ALTITUDE LIFT TO DRAG RATIO AT CRUISE SERVICE CEILING : : : : : : : : : : : 128 m/s 115 m/s 2000 Km 4.83 hrs 4 Km 900 m 4.85 ton/ft2. 821 m/min at sea level 5.83 minutes 13.3 6.9 km

ENGINE SPECIFICATION:S.H.P WEIGHT S.F.C LENGTH DIAMETER : : : : : 750 hp 1530.36 N 2.7468 (N/hr)/SHP 1575 mm 483 mm

CONTENTSList of symbols used. List of tables List of graphs Comparative data 1. Initial weight estimation 2. Engine selection 3. Fuel weight estimation 4. Second weight estimation 5. Selection of tip chord and root chord 6. Estimation of thickness to chord ratio of wing aerofoil 7. Aerofoil selection 8. Estimation of landing speed and stalling speed 9. Flap selection 10. Tyre selection 11. Fuselage details 12. Propeller design 13. Configuration layout 14. C.G calculations 15. Drag estimation 16. Drag polar estimation 17. Performance calculations 18. Stability analysis 19. V-n diagram 20. Conclusion

Bibliography

LIST OF SYMBOLS USED

AR a aw at av a.c b

Aspect Ratio Temperature Lapse Rate Slope of the CL vs. curve for wing Slope of the CL vs. curve for a horizontal tail. Slope of the CL vs. curve for a vertical tail aerodynamic centre Wing span Mean aerodynamic chord m m C/m /deg /deg /deg

CD CDi CD0 wing CDt CL Cmac Cmc.g Cmfus,nac Cn cr ct

Drag coefficient Induced drag coefficient Drag coefficient of wing Total Drag Coefficient Lift Coefficient Pitching moment coefficient at aerodynamic centre Pitching moment coefficient at centre of gravity Pitching moment coefficient due to fuselage and nacelle Yawing Moment coefficient. Root Chord Tip Chord m m

Cs Cl. C.G D D E e it iw J K le lt lv N N0 n n R R/C Re S St Sv S

Speed Power Coefficient of Propeller Dihedral effect Centre of gravity Diameter of propeller Drag Endurance Ostwalds efficiency factor Orientation of tail plane on the fuselage Orientation of wing on fuselage Advance ratio of propeller Gust alleviation factor. Distance between inoperative engine and centre line of fuselage Distance between C.G position of aircraft and horizontal stabilizer Distance between C.G position of aircraft and vertical stabilizer. Rotation per minute. Neutral point Rotation per second Load factor Range Rate of climb Reynolds number Wing area Horizontal tail area Vertical tail area Area of individual components m2 m2 m2 m2 km m/min m m m /min m /s deg deg /deg m m N Hrs

S.F.C S/L SHP THP t/c

Specific fuel consumption Sea Level Shaft horse power Thrust horse power Thickness to chord ratio Tail volume ratio

(N/hr)/SHP

U Vcruise Vs Wf Wfuel Wpayload Wpilot Wpowerplant Wmax Wstructure WT.O W/S Xa,c XC.G

Gust velocity. Cruise velocity Stalling velocity Weight of fixed equipment like seats, galleys etc Weight of the fuel Weight of payload (passengers) Weight of the pilot Weight of the power plant Maximum weight of the aircraft Weight of the structure of the aircraft Takeoff weight Wing loading Distance between nose of the aircraft to the a.c of Aircraft

m/s m/s m/s N N N N N N N N N/ m2 m

Distance between nose of the aircraft to the C.G position of the aircraft. m Angle of attack Blade angle. Dihedral angle Floating tendency Restoring tendency deg deg deg /deg /deg

e r

Deflection of the elevator Deflection of the rudder Damping ratio

deg deg

t

Tail efficiency Angle of downwash Density Density of air at sea level deg kg/ m3 kg/ m3

Density ratio Taper ratio Viscosity Airplane mass parameter. (W/S)/ g Elevator effectiveness factor Airplane time parameter (W/S)/ gV s N-s/ m2

undamped natural frequency

LIST OF TABLES

1. Comparative data 2. Engines and its specification 3. Aerofoils and their CLMAX & CDMIN 4. Different runways and their runway loadings. 5. Propeller efficiency and blade angle at various condition 6. C.G calculation of fuselage 7. C.G calculation of wing 8. C.G calculation for 10% fuel and full payload condition 9. C.G calculation for 10% fuel and no payload condition 10. Airplanes C.G position at various configuration 11. Parasite drag calculation for takeoff condition 12. Parasite drag calculation for cruising condition 13. Parasite drag calculation for landing condition 14. Drag polar estimation for takeoff condition 15. Drag polar estimation for cruising condition 16. Drag polar estimation for landing condition 17. Rate of climb estimation for various altitude 18. Elevator deflection for various CL 19. Yawing moment coefficient for various velocity 20. Load factor limitations for various category of aircraft 21. Velocity at various load factors

LIST OF GRAPHS1. Aspect ratio Vs velocity 2. Wing loading Vs velocity 3. Span to length ratio Vs velocity 4. Drag polar 5. THP Vs velocity 6. Rate of climb Vs velocity 7. Maximum rate of climb Vs altitude 8. 1/(R/C)max Vs altitude 9. CL Vs 10. Cm Vs CL for various C.G positions 11. Cm Vs CL for various elevator deflections 12. Elevator deflection Vs equilibrium CL 13. Cn Vs velocity 14. Amplitude Vs time for phugoid oscillation 15. V-n diagram

COMPARATIVE DATA

Aircraft design is both an art and engineering. From the time that an airplane first materializes as a new thought in the mind of one or more persons to the time that the finished product rolls out of the manufacturers door, the complete design process has gone through three distinct phases that are carried out in the sequence. These phases in chronological order are conceptual design, preliminary design & detail design. This conceptual aerodynamic design project involves the estimation of weight and choice of the aerodynamic characteristics that will be best suited to the mission requirements. It also estimates drag, size of the powerplant, the best airframe size to accommodate the payload, wing and engine placement. This conceptual design locates principal weight groups in order to satisfy static stability requirements. It also sizes control surfaces to achieve the degree of manoeuvrability. The designing process started with the collection of comparative data from various aircraft of the present requirement existing in market. Data on nearly 12 aircraft were collected out of which 6 aircraft were selected. From the comparative data parameters like aspect ratio, span to length ratio, wing loading and maximum velocity were finalised. The comparative data was obtained from JANES ALL WORLD AIRCRAFT-2006-07

NAME OF AIRCRAFT

Beechcraft King Air C90GTi

Beechcraft King Air B100

Cessna 441

Dornier Do 228

Beechcraft B200

Piaggio P.180 Avanti

COUNTRY OF U.K ORIGIN