1423204204 Mandarin

download 1423204204 Mandarin

of 6

  • date post

    06-Apr-2018
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    215
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of 1423204204 Mandarin

  • 8/3/2019 1423204204 Mandarin

    1/6

    i. a tonallanguage. _here are four tones ind ar in Ch in es e: f ir st tone, tl~~ and high-pitched;d lone, f]sing. similar to tone u ed in questionsg lis b; th ird to ne , d ip pin g, 1 m f i r ; r , t h en risingway l I lp~ fourth tone, fal ling, like at finn "No!'lish ..T hes e fo ur tones me i nd ic at ed ' lb y - : , ~

    '.respecl]ve~y, and. marked over the vowel ~11le { EX : ma, r na , m ll, ma), Tones. a re essential

    (hey di stinguish words from one another.is . also the neutral tone (indicated by not

    ing any diacritic mark). and its pitch cbangesrd in g to t he tone preceding it.

    2 . W hen "uo' combines w ith th e labial initials b. p, m, an d f, the "u" in 'it drops oelX:be "wa' e," p o "[0 break;' me . to touch," f a . "buddha"3. When "il" combines with a palatal initial j, q, or x, the umlaut drop out.

    EX ...~. I " iU , 'i'i , ' ' i " O J " < > ']I .111X X f o ' , . ,: JU _ _ .,Jusentel]'ce qu ---,I> qu o "to go xue ---+ xuc, now4 L W hen f in als b eg in nin g w ith "i' OCCUl' without an. initial, "i" change to "y,"

    EX; ia ---+ y.a "tooth" ie ---+ ye, "also" illng yon,g, "to use'For"]," " in ," " in g, " i ns te ad o f'r ep la ci ug " 1" w ith a "y," add a Y before' it whenis Ul0 initial,lEX: I _. yI "one" in ~ yin. "reason" Ing ---+ ying. "hawk"'When "iu" occurs without.M initial, it is spelled "yon," a s i n y ou . 't o have," you, "ag

    5..When final beginning with "u' occur without an initial, 'u' changes to ' 'v".';EX:. uO ---+ U. ' '1'" uam . wan, "bowl" ming ~ 'Ii l ing" 'king"Wilen "u" occurs without < 1 1 1 1 initial, add a '~w"before i t. t hus :EX: L I Wil,"filve" U ---,I> wu, "fog'WIIH~j 'u "ui" an d "un" o cc ur w ith ou t am initial, in addi tion ro "l'" chang ing to "w;"~n "e' after the 'W."EX : ui ---t wei. "great" ui - -- + \. ei, "stomach"

    6. W hen fin als beginning w ith "u," in clu din g "u ," 'o cc ur w ith ou t an initial. the udrops out and 3J "y"is added before "u."EX: L i yu , "jade" na n ---,I> yuan, ' f a r " O n ----t yun, "cloud"

    ..Third ToneWh en a th ird tone i s f o ll owed 'by another third, it changes to a second. lone, making th e sy ] lab les . a secoud- thied combinanlhao (hello) -+ n [ haoh~n ha o very good) -+ h en h aoWhen followed by a first second O~'fourth tone, a third tone is pronounced with only the dippil1g part (i.e, without the rto ward th e en d), fo rm in g a so -c alled "half-third' tone. This h alf- th ird to ne is n orm ally th e ~owes'tn ote o ne c ou ld p ro dNO [ . t h at a ny th ir d- to ne change occurs only many. an d is n ot re flec ted in th e m ark in g ofthe diacritic ma!;Ik . . ..

    .' V i & .o n"Yi' and "bu," the two characters that mean "one" an d "no," are p ro no un ce d w it h O J first tone (yi} and a fourth (bu) stanalene. When used in a comblnat ion, however, there are tone changes for both characters,Vi: Y1+ (] -; ~ yi. er , Sal1 one, two. threeyi + first, second, third -k.-.if-. - ft yi Han, y] uian, ylzhong one day, one year. one kindyi + fourth -~. - = - : ; f ' l . . - - - 1 : f yi ke, y i y a l' lg , yl jian one Jesson, the same, one pieceB,u: b u + 0bu + first, seco nd. 'third ~ -t, ~"$:, + ~.bu chi, b1.~na, bU xiang not eat. n ot tak e. n ot fe el lik ebtl + fourth ~ ~ ~ : : r : ; ; , - ! : : . : : ; r . : ; . { _ bliJ yao. bi t qu, b u. sh i not want, not go, not be'T he se c han ges are o ral. an d w heth er th e lone ma rk r ef le c ts any tone change in "yi" ! l 1 1 L a ! "bu" isat thediscretion o f t he pwh o transcribes the sound,

    most widely adopted Romanizatien system for hinese sounds is called Pinyin.lling sound." I~consists of three parts: an initial, a final, and a tone mar ...I . ~niti3ils TT.Ftliidsb P m f -~ a e a1 e'l 3 i . O ou an en . an g eng Qn g erd t n Hi ie un U IO UJ Ian m . rang mg kmgg k h u u a no UU ' l : ~ liB u u n un uang u e n gJ q x G u e ilan unzh ch sh rz c S -YIN SPKLll.ING RUl.ES.ositioldl~g of Tone Mnrksery tone js indicated by placing its tone mark above the vowel in the final, as ina "he," m e n "door. ' If more than one vowel ill the final (EX: ai, ua, iao), place thene mark over the vowel that is second to last, as in h , e i "black," xiao "small," guait ra nge " ; howeve r, ifthat OV\,',] happ ns to be ai'll 'i" or "u," place th e tone m ark o ve re last vowel. a in Ki a "dOWI1l " simi "sleep."

    IiJ Con ur um R ad le ajs&Meanings

    labor, work go n g .J:.

    Eng.

    knife

    MATION OF'm an U c .Uements

    Pinyin Trad, eal'th ttl 3 : .door me n . r ~re n Aan,pe r s oninese characters are formed

    parts '['hat represent meaning . 1 '1these parts sometimes power~----~----~----~nd alone most characters .- . ,." . . - . " .' P ho .netic EI"u1I1,ents

    t of two OF more parts. EX: 80 Ir~90% of modern characters are a combinationmu; whe_l1 standing alone, of ~semantic part (radical) find a phonetic element.

    eans "eye," but when combined M~lny characters have similar sounds because of the-I t chui,'~[o drape," we have commonphonetic pans they share. The phonetic- shul, "to sleep." ~ [nu. th clement in a character serves as an effective tool fo rntic root 'rhattells u this Chinese speakers to re~ldand write thech acters.

    d.mraCler has ~o d with 'eye/' EX9.mpEes of ,characters. sbaring the sam .eis tb e radical. or ~tit bu.h6u, phoQ rii~ ~oa_]poll.ellts wi.th. dUJerent l~~ldJklds".O 'r.o f thi.s character, and .4; chui m~. . . ::d.ngsb.[>!ngzi.:a.ho a se rna l1l t iccompm:u: .I l t tha t r o I b il io r b o . ''v.1hitc' 'e s a r e'l ev an u explanation t.Q f l1e 1 a b6. "uncle','" A ren ~pe rS -O I1 )mdicalning of the 't:hilrac~eI. There ar,e ~~ i b o . ",cypress," ; t . . . IllU (wood). radical20 0 fadidtl~. and traJditiomd )~ 'bo, < '00 anchor" 7)< . shuT (\v3Iler) radicalstill class[fy char.i l .c ter: . M. r .L~11 ' j lbo.."ship," W zholJJ (boat) radicaltheir r ad i ca J s . .

    female. fl Udao woman

    metal, jinwood mu fine silk ~ goldll]water shu] 1 ] < . clothing y l ; f < , _ bird i h u Tfire hu6 : k . speech y a n ~;5 rain ..field t i i lm !! 1 to walk zou k jille y e mu ~ foot zu J 1 . . . _ to e at

    heart

    moon y u e

    shou -1 -.andSHn,

    dayri

    STROKE ORDER TRADI11'IONALCHARACTERS 1 & SIMPI..lFWhen yOU! write a CHARA:CTERScharacter, it is important In order to make writing characters ea ier, the maito follow th e proper uroke Chinese government has simplified many charactersorder so the character 1k 1950 h . lif d h t~~,~. "x I'hie .. _. S. ne sunp m e . c araeters, r~l ' 1 I . , i . l+ JI.i'lnt]ooksprClp0l1]()llaUy and standard 'in mainland China an d in Singapore, whiestheil:icaUy'coned. tmditt]onal clrulJracters. ", It~an U iare u ed offiB,asic Rules. for Strolu.'! in T aiw an . H )n g K on g .an d M ac au .Order ] ef t) : to . []ght to]) In bQmnt l1~ u .middh ;! 'b ef or e s ides~ hfoTIzontal before vertica]i outside b e f o : r e in ide0;' cutting . '~rokelast. . bo t ton1J~ I{)s ing s trukes ]nst

    Eng. Pinyin Trad. Simp. mother m aItoenwr jin i1 ! itt d . o o r mencountry g u o ~ I 1 J fbod fan -t:east d o n g .t : f , . to buy mai fr'10 lel fang tl -it diut dxen J .

  • 8/3/2019 1423204204 Mandarin

    2/6

    & nega,d e st:nh~~~~:sI ,ormally folll !m'+'the S-V~ (SlLIhject-b-Object) pattern::c p . : t . .

    o shll l ,o,Zhiingwell.' Fe c al Ch in e se ,l .tCI"f '( lg;dives are rormed ~nthe

    g ways,!~ bu)A (Anot A)' "A" could be

    either an adjective or a verb. 1 , y . ~ ~ ff.i ?Nl e bu e ' ' ?A re y ou hungry?

    .tl!.}t (haishi) H (A or 8)"1\" and, "B" c ou ld b e' n ou n p hra se s.< : Id jecbves o r c l auses,1~:..f ~ A~I t ?Ta : L a i nar? (he-is-where)W here is h e'?

    A sp ec t is . [I ,e atu re o f g rammar t ha n t eUu s th e te mp or al flo w o f L a ng ua ge . S in ceChinese is a non-in fl ect ional l anguage ,a peetual particles are extremelyimportantindicatnrs for the completionand.contmuation .of a n a ctio n, T he re a reth ree Ch inese aspectual particles: jit'l,it z h c . a n d ~ g u -1iET he re a re two majo r f un ctio ns o f "le."A. "sentence le' is used at the end of as en ten ce , g ove rn in g t he en ti re s en tenc e ,w he n w ha t i b in g d is cu ss ed is a news it ua ti on , .A " c omp le te d c ti on Ic ' goesimmed ia te lv a fte r t he verb, marking the- .~c om pletio n o f an action.ii, S e nte nc e " le " ( or N ew Si i tuat iOQ ~~1e')T r fJ ' 1 ' !X ia yu . I e '!

    It's r a i n i n g now!.i\~1~W 6 b in g :Ie ,.[ a R TI sick.

    C om pleted A ction "le""R em emb er n ot to equate tbis " It :" t oth e " pa st te ns e" in English. MtL'[oughm an y c om p le te d acti.cms d o ta k,e p ia cein a p ast tim e, others do not ,(E X : "1will h a .v e -t aken 4 0 c red it ." by th e t imeI gradu ate,' "C om e see m e w he n ;tQUh ave;e:.omplGted Ilhepmject'l T o < lac'idet h i s . motori.()usly complex structure.u n de rs ta nd t he following stll.I,'~ure :T n a l la st e ve nt w jt h a n um ib eT i nv ol ve d: .S + { Tim .e W t) rd ), V + ,k+ Nu.mber+ M.ea:!lPl"le Word + 0

    j J i ~ 4 - Jt J f - . . t . ut1- 1 m ~ ~*.W6 jintWn z ao sh an g c h1 ]if~ yi gpinggu.o.I nad a ll a pp ]e t l 1 i s morning.

    A ffirm ativ e/N eg ativ e se nte nc e +g~ (ma)ft~-k -1~+*~~?T il bu q il - H i i b t l qu ma?He ino t g o in g . .. .. .I ~h e not g o in g ?

    'Topic-Com.ment StructureIn spoken Ch i n e s e, t op ic - commentstr Ll Cture isv({[ddy u sed whendescrlbi ng ap pearance of a p erson /entity Of' whenpassing judgment,,I. ' Ii { ; :] ;; .1 !. ; -; m ~ ~;!:~ E I I - , ; . J l l ' ; l 1,r:.. f.F 1l::;Ti l yiinjing be n piaolieng.She , eyes, beautiful.S 11eha s beau tiu l e ye s,

    N o n- Ia fle c tio li1 i9 1, ~No c on ] u ga t io n f or v er bs~tJtt :St .W o huo Zhu l 1 gwen .I speak Ch inese.~tli*~.Ta shuo Ylngwen,H e peaks E nglish.

    No dist