100th Anniversary Issue: Perspectives in telecommunications

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  • 100th Anniversary Issue: Perspectives in telecommunications

    1 Guest Editorial; Berit Svendsen, CTO Telenor

    3 Enlightening 100 years of telecom development From Technical Information in 1904 to

    Telektronikk in 2004; Per H Lehne, Telenor R&D

    10 Why 1904? A time of rapid and radical technological change; Harald Rinde, BI

    Section 1: Perspectives in telecommunications

    13 Internet Protocol Perspectives on consequences and benefits by introducing IP;

    Terje Jensen, Telenor R&D

    22 Personal communication fabrication in the Lyngen Alps;

    Neil Gershenfeld and Manu Prakash, MIT

    27 Perspectives on the dependability of networks and services; Bjarne E Helvik, NTNU

    45 Vulnerability exposed: Telecommunications as a hub of society; Jan A Audestad, Telenor

    55 Radio interface and access technologies for wireless and mobile systems beyond 3G;

    Geir E ien, NTNU

    69 The adoption, use and social consequences of mobile communication; Rich Ling, Telenor R&D

    82 How Telektronikk changed the Web; Hkon Wium Lie, Opera Software

    Section 2: Selections from Norwegian telecom history

    85 From radiotelegraphy to fibre technology Telenors history and development on Svalbard;

    Viggo Bjarne Kristiansen, Telenor Svalbard

    97 INMARSAT a success story! How it was established, Later developments,

    The role of Telenor former NTA; Ole Johan Haga, Telenor

    113 Features of the Internet history The Norwegian contribution to the development;

    Paal Spilling and Yngvar Lundh, UNIK

    134 Why and how Svalbard got the fibre; Rolf Skr, Norwegian Space Centre

    140 Technical solution and implementation of the Svalbard fibre cable; Eirik Gjesteland, Telenor

    Section 3: GSM ideas, origin and milestones a Norwegian perspective

    153 The engagement of Televerket in the specification of GSM;

    Bjrn Lken, Telenor Nordic Mobile

    155 How it all began; Thomas Haug, Telia

    159 My work in the GSM services area An interview with Helene Sandberg;

    Finn Trosby, Telenor Nordic Mobile

    161 Wideband or narrow band? World championships in mobile radio in Paris 1986;

    Torleiv Maseng, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment

    165 GSM Working Party 2 Towards a radio sub-system for GSM;

    Rune Harald Rkken, Telenor R&D

    170 The Mobile Application Part (MAP) of GSM; Jan A Audestad, Telenor

    177 Signalling over the radio path; Knut Erik Walter, Telenor R&D

    182 The 1987 European Speech Coding Championship; Jon Emil Natvig, Telenor R&D

    187 SMS, the strange duckling of GSM; Finn Trosby, Telenor Nordic Mobile

    195 The Norwegian GSM industrialisation An idea that never took off;

    Rune Harald Rkken, Telenor R&D

    198 MOU of the GSM-MoU: Memorizing Old Undertakings of the GSM-Memorandum of

    Understanding; Petter Bliksrud, Telenor Nordic Mobile

    Section 4: From the archives

    202 Introduction; Per H Lehne, Telenor R&D

    203 The transatlantic telegraph cable of 1858 and other aspects of early telegraphy;

    Per H Lehne, Telenor R&D

    209 The second wireless in the world; Per H Lehne, Telenor R&D

    214 Terms and acronyms


    TelektronikkVolume 100 No. 3 2004

    ISSN 0085-7130


    Per Hjalmar Lehne

    (+47) 916 94 909


    Editorial assistant:

    Gunhild Luke

    (+47) 415 14 125


    Editorial office:

    Telenor ASA

    Telenor R&D

    NO-1331 Fornebu


    (+47) 810 77 000



    Editorial board:

    Berit Svendsen, CTO Telenor

    Ole P. Hkonsen, Professor

    Oddvar Hesjedal, Director

    Bjrn Lken, Director

    Graphic design:

    Design Consult AS (Odd Andersen), Oslo

    Layout and illustrations:

    Gunhild Luke and se Aardal,

    Telenor R&D

    Prepress and printing:

    Gan Grafisk, Oslo



    Networks on networks

    Connecting entities through networks in

    technological, societal and personal terms

    enables telecommunication. Networks occur on

    different levels, form parts of larger networks,

    and exist in numerous varieties. The artist Odd

    Andersen visualises the networks on networks

    by drawing interconnected lines with different

    widths. Curved connections disturb the order

    and show that networks are not regular but are

    adapted to the communication needs.

    Per H Lehne, Editor in Chief

  • 1

    Telektronikks forerunner, TECHNICAL INFORMA-TION from the Telegraph Administration, appearedin April 1904, with the intention to impart knowl-edge, to all personnel, of the State Telegraph Admin-istration technical installations, and to supply themore important news in the areas of telegraphic andtelephonic technology.

    This modest beginning took place at a time whentelecommunications was dominated by the telegraph.Since the establishment of the Norwegian TelegraphAdministration in 1855, the countrywide telegraphservices had in 1904 grown to be a necessary instru-ment, a must, in all kinds of commercial activities.The telephone service was in its early youth; itexisted mainly within the cities with poor coverage.Long distance telephone calls might be dispatchedonly on a few routes.

    Radio communications had hardly come to Norway.The first trials with radiotelegraphy had taken placein 1903 in the northern part of the country.

    There is a huge gap between the state of the art in1904 and the technology of today and the wide port-folio of advanced services which are now beingoffered. In a number of short articles in this issue,Telektronikks editor, Per H. Lehne, gives anoverview of the technology and how some eventshave been reflected in the journal. In all the yearsafter the introduction of the journal idealistic engi-neers and technologists have presented informationabout innovations in telecom with emphasis on appli-cations in Norway. In older issues you will find pre-sentations about the bigger paradigm shifts in tech-nology and new technical installations in the network.The journal has in that way kept up with the originalidea to update the personnel in the technical field.Looking back in the old volumes a historian may finddetailed information about the first long distance net-work made up of open-wire lines on poles, the devel-opment in telephony, the manual systems, conversionto automatic systems, automation of the long distancenetwork, the introduction and the end of the telexnetwork, the large scale deployment of micro wavesystems in the trunk network, satellite communica-tion systems, introduction of fibre technology, andnot to forget the digitalisation of the telecom network.

    In 1967 the Research Institute was established as partof the Telegraph Administration and opened for an

    influx of young and ambitious researchers, which ledto a new keenness in all professional operations of thecompany. A natural development was that this newpersonnel category gradually left their mark on thejournal and raised the quality of the content. Further-more, the journal could also serve as a channel toexternal readers, within and outside the country, andmight thus promote the company as a modern techno-logical enterprise. As a consequence articles writtenin English appeared in the journal.

    The objective of promoting the company was evenmore emphasized when the state enterprise in 1994was converted to the private company Telenor(although fully state owned) and later introduced tothe stock exchange. A new editorial policy was intro-duced for the journal, with more systematic selectionof topics for each issue, aiming at readers both athome and abroad. As a consequence, it was decidedthat Telektronikk should have full production inEnglish.

    So, what is ahead? A leading engineer and laterDirector of the Telegraph Administration, SverreRynning Tnnesen, formulated his vision for the tele-phone service in the 1930s as: Anyone, located any-where, should at any time easily get access to a tele-phone, and be able to establish a telephone call withgood quality to any other person, located anywherein the world.

    Certainly, it can be said that this vision is a realitytoday. But this is not the end of the development andthe demands from the users. Mobile communicationhas revolutionized the possibility for any person to beaccessible at any time and wherever the person mightbe, not only for telephone conversations, but also forall other kinds of communication which may be real-ized face-to-face. The demand for portability andhigher capacity is increasing and must be expected toincrease furthermore in the years to come, as a pre-requisite to realizing new and enhanced services.While fixed-line technology generally offers highercapacity than mobile communication, mobile offersportability. You can easily predict that much creativeresearch may be invested in efforts to bridge this kindof gap between the two technologies.

    The modern society of today depends on efficient andreliable telecommunications services to enable busi-ness operations and public services to society. Over

    100 years

    B E R I T S V E N D S E N

    Berit Svendsen

    is Executive Vice

    President Tech-

    nology / CTO of

    Telenor ASA and

    chairman of

    Telenor R&D

    Telektronikk 3.2004 ISSN 0085-7130 Telenor ASA 2004

  • 2 Telektronikk 3.2004

    the last two decades information technologies and theInternet have been transforming the way companiesdo business, the way students learn, the way the gov-ernment and communities provide services to the citi-zens, and communication between individuals. Digi-tal technologies have alrea