1 Unit I Two Words to Avoid, Two to Remember Presented by Luo Zhaohui.

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Transcript of 1 Unit I Two Words to Avoid, Two to Remember Presented by Luo Zhaohui.

  • Unit I Two Words to Avoid, Two to RememberPresented by Luo Zhaohui

  • Copyright 2012 Andy Guo. All rights reserved ContentsPre-class workOrganization and developmentThe text Related background knowledgeReflections

  • Copyright 2012 Andy Guo. All rights reserved Pre-class questions1. Share some words or sentences that most impressed you or caused great change to you.2. Failures and setbacks are inevitable in our life. The causes are various: faulty planning, miscalculations, wrong judgments, false moves, etc. Tell us about one such unfortunate experience of yours, and, more importantly, how you managed to get back on your feet and regard life in a more positive light.

  • If only vs. next timeWe may regard if only as indicating the past and next time the future, we all know the most important time is now, as past things could not be changed and future is based on now. We have a proverb dont cry over spilled milk, try to comment on the proverb, please.

  • 2. Manhattan, an island near the mouth of the Hudson River, is a borough of New York City, in southeastern New York State, U.S.A. Commercial and cultural heart of the city, Manhattan is the site of the Metropolitan Opera House, Carnegie Hall(), the City Center of Music and Drama, and numerous other music institutions. Main museums and art galleries of Manhattan include the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the American Museum of Natural History, etc. Columbia University and New York University are also located here. Among other points of interest are the Rockefeller Center, the Empire State Building. Background knowledge

  • 3. A psychiatrist is a medical practitioner specializing in the diagnosis, and treatment of mental illness. Generally, after completion of medical training, physicians take a three-year residency in psychiatry to become qualified psychiatrists. As psychiatry is an area of medicine, psychiatrists tend to view and conceptualize disordered behavior as types of mental illness.Those who have mental illness, psychological and emotional disorders consult psychiatrists.

  • 4. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) is an Austrian physician and the founder of psychoanalysis, Freud explored the workings of the human mind and developed psychoanalysis as a therapeutic technique to treat neurosis or mental disturbances . His idea of the unconscious mental processes and his theory that a principal cause of neurosis is the repression of painful memories into the unconscious hold a central place in psychology and psychiatry today.

  • Sigmund FreudCarl Jung

  • Id, ego and super-ego

    In his later work, Freud proposed that the human psyche could be divided into three parts: Id, ego and super-ego. Freud discussed this model in the 1920 essay Beyond the Pleasure Principle, and fully elaborated upon it in The Ego and the Id (1923), in which he developed it as an alternative to his previous topographic schema (i.e., conscious, unconscious and preconscious). The id is the completely unconscious, impulsive, childlike portion of the psyche that operates on the "pleasure principle" and is the source of basic impulses and drives; it seeks immediate pleasure and gratification.

  • The super-ego is the moral component of the psyche, which takes into account no special circumstances in which the morally right thing may not be right for a given situation. The rational ego attempts to exact a balance between the impractical hedonism () of the id and the equally impractical moralism of the super-ego; it is the part of the psyche that is usually reflected most directly in a person's actions. When overburdened or threatened by its tasks, it may employ defense mechanisms including denial repression, undoing, rationalization, repression, and displacement. This model represents the roles the Id, Ego, and Super Ego play in relation to conscious and unconscious thought.Freud compared the relationship between the ego and the id to that between a charioteer and his horses: the horses provide the energy and drive, while the charioteer provides direction.

  • ()

  • Organization and developmentI. Introduction (para. 1) 1-3Background and significance of the story to be narrated.II. The story: setting, development and end, arranged in a chronological order (paras 2-31) III. Conclusion (paras 32-33)Restatement of the significance of the advice by the old man, giving more force to the authors point of view.

  • Nothing in life is more exciting and rewarding than the sudden flash of insight that leaves you a changed person not only changed, but changed for the betterRewrite or paraphrase it:

    Detailed study of the text

  • A project of considerable importance in my life had fallen through.

    He came across the street, finally, muffled in his ancient overcoat, shapeless felt hat pulled down the bald head, looking more like an energetic gnome than an eminent psychiatrist. (What do you know about the old man from this description?)

  • He was close to 80, but he still carried a full case load, still acted as director of a large foundation,

    He still kept himself fully occupied in the treatment of his patients.

  • (well, young man, he said without preliminary, whats troubling you?)I had long since ceased to be surprised at his perceptiveness. So I proceeded to tell him, at some length, just what was bothering me.

  • The woman who spoke next had never married because of a sense of obligation to her widowed mother, she recalled bitterly all the marital chances she had let go by.

  • If only, I say to them, youd stop saying if only, we might begin to get somewhere!

    Whats the trouble with if only according to the old psychiatrist (para.15) ?You never got out of the past tense. Not once did you mention the future. (you are always thinking of the past, regretting and lamenting. You did not at all look forward to what you can do in the future.)

  • How did the old man notice that the young man were not learning from his mistakes? (paras 16-18)Theres a perverse streak in all of us that makes us like to hash over old mistakes.Streak: (here) element, quality in ones character Hash over: (AmE, Infomal) bring up sth. again for consideration

  • Para.20: Change the key words and substitute a phrase that supplies lift instead of creating drag.

    Substitute A for B= substitute B with ALift: encouragement, sth. that gives you confidence, energy or enthusiasmDrag: something that slows you down or makes it more difficult; something unpleasant, nuisance

  • Strike out the words if only, substitute the phrase next time.Strike out: removeGrim and painfulGrim: unpleasing, depressing, and difficult to acceptPush aside the roadblock of regret

  • I could hear the rain whispering against the windowpane. I tried sliding one phrase out of my mind and replacing it with the other.

    but I could hear the new words locked into place with an audible click.

  • My, my, said the Old Man slyly, if only we had come down ten seconds sooner, wed have caught that cab, wouldnt we?I laughed and picked up the cue. Next time Ill run faster.Cue: the signal for the second performer to begin speaking, playing or doing. Here means what the old man suggested or meant.

  • In full stride: very calmly e.g. Some people find retiring difficult, but he has taken it all in his stride. so to speakas one may say, as it were para.32: Whenever I find myself thinking if only I change it to next time. Then I wait for that almost perceptible mental click. And then I hear it, I think of the Old Man.Para.33: A small fragment of immortality

  • Elements of narration:Setting: when, whereCharacters: whoProblems/conflicts: whatGoal: what is the main characters goal? Plot: whatOutcome: howNarration

  • What do you learn from the text?The power of positive thinking, for example.?Reflections

  • Thank You!