1 Skilled, Shortage, Sensible: the recommended shortage occupation lists David Metcalf Chair,...
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1 Skilled, Shortage, Sensible: the recommended shortage occupation lists David Metcalf Chair, Migration Advisory Committee October 2008 www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/mac Slide 2 2 What is the Migration Advisory Committee (MAC)? An advisory non-departmental public body (NDPB) that will provide independent evidence-based advice to Government on occupations where shortages exist which can sensibly be filled by migration Members: Chair (Professor David Metcalf CBE); four other leading economists; a rep from UK Commission for Employment and Skills; UK Border Agency Published recommended shortage occupation lists for the UK and Scotland in September 08 Slide 3 3 Introduction & summary Report is landmark in the provision of evidence-based advice to Government. It is the most comprehensive such analysis ever undertaken anywhere in the world. Central premise: only those job titles which are skilled, in shortage and for which it is sensible to use immigrant workers to fill the shortage make it onto our list. We believe our recommendations achieve the right balance between the needs of individual employers and those of the UK labour market and economy. Big emphasis on up-skilling UK workers. Two recommended shortage occupation lists: one for the UK and one just for Scotland. Recommended lists are based, for the first time, on a comprehensive analysis of the entire labour market. So lists contain more job titles than previously. But lists are tighter than before. We estimate that the occupations on the recommended list account for only approximately 700,000 jobs, compared to over one million jobs on the previous list. Slide 4 4 Slide 5 5 1. Context a. Labour market (stock) 2007 Immigrants were - 11% of total population - 11% of adult population - 13% of working age population (4.7 million) Figure 1.2 Share of immigrants in the UK working age population, 1979 - 2007 Note: Rates describe working age population including students. Immigrants are defined as foreign born individuals. Source: Labour Force Survey (1979-2007). Slide 6 6 b.Immigration flows TIM (over 1 year) 2006 - gross inflow 591,000 Table 1.7 Gross inflow by country of citizenship, 2006 Thousands (%) British81 (14%) European Union167 (28%) Commonwealth201 (34%) Other foreign142 (24%) Total591 (100%) Source: International Passenger Survey (2006), published in ONS (2007b). Slide 7 7 of which 231,000 (39%) work related % Work39 Students27 Dependants18 Other17 Total 100 Table 1.8 Main reasons for immigration, 2006 Thousands Definite job161 Looking for work70 Accompany/join104 Formal study157 Other e.g. asylum, working holiday 56 No reason stated43 Total591 Source: International Passenger Survey (2006), published in ONS (2007b). Slide 8 8 Other sources (including under 1 year ) - work permits 200697,000 - worker registration scheme 2007207,000 - national insurance numbers 2006/07714,000 Table 1.10 Continent of origin for foreign nationals in the UK who were allocated a National Insurance number in 2006/07 Thousands Europe EU excluding Accession countries 104 Europe EU Accession countries321 Europe Non-EU16 Asia and Middle East145 Australasia and Oceania33 Americas32 Africa61 Other / unknown1 All714 Source: DWP (2007), table 2. Table 1.9 Work permit holders given leave to enter the UK in 2006 Thousands Employment for 12 months or more 57.5 Employment for less than 12 months 39.1 Dependents of work permit holders48.5 Total145.1 Source: Control of Immigration Statistics 2006, published in Home Office (2007). Slide 9 9 2.Work permit system Figure 2.1 Applications under the work permit system approved, 1995 2007 Notes: (1) Total permits approved refers to permits issued under the work permits system. It excludes the lower skilled schemes such as the Sectors Based Scheme and Seasonal Agricultural Workers Scheme applications; (2) Other includes self-certification and in-country technical change. Source: Salt, 2007; management information collected by UKBA. Slide 10 10 Industries, occupations, origin and routes iIndustries 2007 88,000 work permits plus first permissions (WP+FP) Half accounted for by: - computer services27% - admin and management services13% - financial services 9% iiOccupation 2006 97,000 WP+FP 68% accounted for by professional and associate professional occupations: - science and technology36% - health13% - business, public, finance10% - culture, media, sports 5% - teaching 4% Slide 11 11 iiiCountry of origin 1995 24,000 WP+FP of which USA one third 2006 97,000 WP+FP of which India one third, USA one tenth ivRoutes Two main exempt from RLMT - intra-company transfers (ICT) 2007 38,000 or 43% of WP+FP - shortage occupations 2007 4,800 or 10% of WP+FP excluding ICTs mainly health and education Slide 12 12 Table 2.2 Foreign labour inflows to the UK, 2005 Number per cent of all inflows Work permit system86,20021.5 Working holiday makers20,1005.0 Highly Skilled Migrant Programme17,6004.4 Seasonal Agricultural Workers Scheme15,5003.9 Domestic servants10,1002.5 UK ancestry8,3002.1 Sectors Based Scheme7,4001.8 Science and Engineering Graduates Scheme2,7000.7 Au pairs2,4000.6 Ministers of religion5000.1 Non-EEA routes total170,80042.6 Worker Registration Scheme195,00048.6 EU and EFTA35,2008.8 EEA routes total230,20057.4 Total labour inflows for 2005400,900100 Notes: Data are rounded to the nearest 100. Data are derived from different sources: no more recent comparable data are available. Sources: Salt and Millar (2006a) using data from Work Permits UK, UK Visas; IRS (UK Border Agency); Home Office; International Passenger Survey (data from 2004). Slide 13 13 3.Tier 2 a.Basics - sponsor - certificate of sponsorship (old WP) - job skilled to NQF 3+ (i.e. NVQ 3+) - pay to be reasonable i.e. no undercutting - prior entry clearance b.Routes: need 70+ points imandatory competence in English (level A1)10pts maintenance requirement (800)10pts iiroutes shortage occupation50pts RLMT 30 + pay/qualifications (20)50pts ICT 30 + pay/qualifications (20)50pts Slide 14 14 Table 3.1 Points under Tier 2 SectionCertificate of Sponsorship Qualifications (or equivalents) Prospective Earnings () A (50 points needed) Offer of job in shortage occupation 50No qualifications017,000 - 19,9995 Offer of job that passes RLMT 30NVQ Level 3520,000 - 21,99910 Intra-Company Transfer 30Bachelors or Masters 1022,000 - 23,99915 PhD1524,000 +20 BMaintenance requirement (mandatory)10 CCompetence in English (mandatory)10 Notes: Prospective earnings are before tax, and can be adjusted periodically to reflect inflation and/or labour market requirements. Allowances will be taken into consideration in calculation of salary. Source: UK Border Agency (2008c). Slide 15 15 4 & 5. Approach and issues a. Three hurdles: skilled, shortage, sensible b. Occupations and job titles c. Dovetailing Top down, national data Bottom up e.g. from employers, unions, Sector Skills Councils d. Regions UK and Scotland non-national shortages A job title and associated occupations Major Group: 2 Professional occupations Sub-major group: 21 Science and technology professionals Minor group: 212 Engineering professionals Unit group: 2122 Mechanical engineers (353 occupations) Job title: Engineer, aerospace (26,000 job titles) Slide 16 16 Slide 17 17 6. Skilled a.Context workforce skills are key government priority Leitch Review (2006) UK Commission for Employment and Skills Tier 2 of PBS requires job title to be NQF 3+ (i.e. NVQ 3+) MAC task: which occupations/job titles are skilled? b.Indicators of skill skill level defined in SOC hierarchy formal qualifications earnings on-the-job training or experience innate ability First 3 from top-down evidence, last 2 from bottom-up evidence c.Result 192 out of 353 occupations defined as skilled Slide 18 18 d.NQF 3+ Box A.2 Thresholds for defining a skilled occupation An occupation is defined as skilled at the four digit level if it satisfies two or more of the following: 50% or more of the workforce are qualified to NQF level 3 (or equivalent) or above; median hourly earnings for all employees is 10 or more; and the occupation is defined as skill level 3 or 4 in the SOC 2000. In practice this means it belongs to the following 1 digit occupational groups: mangers and senior officials; professional occupations; associate professional and technical occupations. Table A.4 Number of indicators of skilled passed by graduate occupations Number of indicators passed SOC(HE) classification Total Non-graduateGraduate 01030 164468 2301545 38129137 Total205148353 Source: MAC analysis. Slide 19 19 Figure A.5 Distribution of skilled occupations by earnings Source: MAC analysis; ASHE 2008. Slide 20 20 192 occupations pass 2 or 3 indicators = 52% of 4 digit occupations = 49% of current workforce This 49% is roughly equivalent to the proportion of the workforce qualified to NQF3+ (50%) The 192 occupations encompass all but 2 of the Elias-Purcell list of graduate occupations (market research interviewers and pub licencees) Slide 21 21 7. Shortage a. Twelve indicators (all by 4-digit SOC) i Employer based skill shortage vacancies / employment skill shortage vacancies / all vacancies skill shortage vacancies / hard-to-fill vacancies ii Price-based indicators change in median hourly pay for all employees change in mean hourly pay for all employees premium to occupation given NQF 3, with controls iii Volume-based indicators change in unemployment by sought occupation change in hours worked for ft employees change in employment change in proportion of new hires (workers in job less than 1 year) iv Administrative data absolute change in median vacancy duration stock of vacancies / claimant count by sought occupation Slide 22 22 b.Thresholds i Median plus x% (say 50%) of median MAC 1 st choice, 7/12 indicators advantages takes absolute distribution into account i.e. occupation. must be at least 50% above median does not imply fixed number of occupations disadva