1 Net ionic equations. 2 EXCHANGEAcid-BaseReactionsEXCHANGEGas-FormingReactions EXCHANGE:...

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Transcript of 1 Net ionic equations. 2 EXCHANGEAcid-BaseReactionsEXCHANGEGas-FormingReactions EXCHANGE:...

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1 Net ionic equations Slide 2 2 EXCHANGEAcid-BaseReactionsEXCHANGEGas-FormingReactions EXCHANGE: Precipitation Reactions REACTIONS Redox Reactions Slide 3 3 TerminologyTerminology In solution we need to define the - SOLVENTSOLVENT the component whose physical state is preserved when solution forms SOLUTESOLUTE the other solution component Slide 4 4 IONIC COMPOUNDS Compounds in Aqueous Solution Many reactions involve ionic compounds, especially reactions in water aqueous solutions. KMnO 4 in water K + (aq) + MnO 4 - (aq) Slide 5 5 An Ionic Compound, CuCl 2, in Water CCR, page 149 Slide 6 6 How do we know ions are present in aqueous solutions? The solutions conduct electricity! They are called ELECTROLYTES HCl, MgCl 2, and NaCl are strong electrolytes. They dissociate completely (or nearly so) into ions. Aqueous Solutions Slide 7 7 HCl, MgCl 2, and NaCl are strong electrolytes. They dissociate completely (or nearly so) into ions. Aqueous Solutions Slide 8 8 An acid -------> H + in water ACIDSACIDS Some strong acids are HClhydrochloric H 2 SO 4 sulfuric HClO 4 perchloric HNO 3 nitric HNO 3 Slide 9 Basic Chemistry Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 9 Strong acids make up six of all the acids have weak conjugate bases Strong Acids Slide 10 Basic Chemistry Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 10 Strong Bases Strong bases are formed from metals of Groups 1A (1) and 2A (2) include LiOH, NaOH, KOH, and Ba(OH) 2 dissociate 100% in water KOH(s) K + (aq) + OH (aq) Bases in household products are used to remove grease and to open drains. Slide 11 11 Aqueous Solutions Acetic acid ionizes only to a small extent, so it is a weak electrolyte. CH 3 CO 2 H(aq) ---> CH 3 CO 2 - (aq) + H + (aq) Slide 12 12 Weak Acids WEAK ACIDS = weak electrolytes CH 3 CO 2 H acetic acid H 2 CO 3 carbonic acid H 3 PO 4 phosphoric acid HF hydrofluoric acid Acetic acid Slide 13 Basic Chemistry Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 13 Weak acids make up most of the acids have strong conjugate bases Weak Acids Slide 14 Basic Chemistry Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 14 Weak Bases Weak bases are poor acceptors of protons dissociate only slightly in water produce only a few ions in water are used in household products such as cleaners NH 3 (g) + H 2 O(l) NH 4 + (aq) + OH (aq) Slide 15 15 Aqueous Solutions Acetic acid ionizes only to a small extent, so it is a weak electrolyte. CH 3 CO 2 H(aq) ---> CH 3 CO 2 - (aq) + H + (aq) Slide 16 16 Aqueous Solutions Some compounds dissolve in water but do not conduct electricity. They are called nonelectrolytes. Examples include: sugarethanol ethylene glycol Examples include: sugarethanol ethylene glycol Slide 17 Basic Chemistry Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 17 Learning Check Identify each of the following as a strong or weak acid or base: A. HBr B. HNO 2 C. NaOH D. H 2 SO 4 E. Cu(OH) 2 strong acid weak acid strong base strong acid weak base Slide 18 Basic Chemistry Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 18 Learning Check A. Identify the stronger acid in each pair. 1. HNO 2 or H 2 S 2. HCO 3 - or HBr 3. H 3 PO 4 or H 3 O + B. Identify the stronger base in each pair. 1. NO 3 - or F - 2. CO 3 2- or NO 2 - 3. OH - or H 2 O Slide 19 Basic Chemistry Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Acid-Base Reactions The driving force = formation of water. NaOH ( aq ) + HCl ( aq ) NaCl ( aq ) + H 2 O (l) Net ionic equation OH - ( aq ) + H + ( aq ) H 2 O (l) OH - ( aq ) + H + ( aq ) H 2 O (l) This applies to ALL reactions of STRONG acids and bases. Slide 20 20 Slide 21 Basic Chemistry Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 22 Gas-Forming Reactions The chemistry of metal carbonates. CO 2 and water H 2 CO 3 H 2 CO 3 (aq) + Ca 2+ H 2 CO 3 (aq) + Ca 2+ 2 H + (aq) + CaCO 3 (s) (limestone) 2 H + (aq) + CaCO 3 (s) (limestone) Adding acid reverses this reaction. MCO 3 + acid CO 2 + salt Slide 23 Basic Chemistry Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 24 Slide 25 Slide 26 EXCHANGEAcid-BaseReactionsEXCHANGEGas-FormingReactions REACTIONS