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Transcript of 1 Information Systems, Ninth Edition Chapter 5 Database Systems and Business Intelligence

  • *Information Systems, Ninth EditionChapter 5 Database Systems and Business Intelligence

  • Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition*Principles and Learning ObjectivesData management and modeling are key aspects of organizing data and information Define general data management concepts and terms, highlighting the advantages of the database approach to data managementDescribe the relational database model and outline its basic features

    Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

  • Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition*Principles and Learning Objectives (continued)A well-designed and well-managed database is an extremely valuable tool in supporting decision making Identify the common functions performed by all database management systems, and identify popular database management systems

    Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

  • Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition*Principles and Learning Objectives (continued)The number and types of database applications will continue to evolve and yield real business benefitsIdentify and briefly discuss current database applications

    Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

  • Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition*Why Learn About Database Systems and Business Intelligence?DatabaseOrganized collection of dataDatabase management system (DBMS)Group of programs that manipulate the database Provide an interface between the database and its users and other application programsDatabase administrator (DBA)Skilled IS professional who directs all activities related to an organizations database

    Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

  • Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition*Data ManagementWithout data and the ability to process it an organization could not successfully complete most business activitiesData consists of raw factsTo transform data into useful information it must first be organized in a meaningful way

    Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

  • Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition*The Hierarchy of DataBit (a binary digit)Circuit that is either on or offByteTypically made up of eight bitsCharacterBasic building block of informationFieldName, number, or combination of characters that describes an aspect of a business object or activity

    Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

  • Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition*The Hierarchy of Data (continued)RecordCollection of related data fieldsFileCollection of related recordsDatabaseCollection of integrated and related filesHierarchy of dataBits, characters, fields, records, files, and databases

    Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

  • Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition*The Hierarchy of Data (continued)

    Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

  • Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition*Data Entities, Attributes, and KeysEntityGeneralized class of people, places, or things (objects) for which data is collected, stored, and maintainedAttributeCharacteristic of an entityData itemSpecific value of an attribute

    Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

  • Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition*Data Entities, Attributes, and Keys (continued)KeyField or set of fields in a record that is used to identify the recordPrimary keyField or set of fields that uniquely identifies the record

    Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

  • Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition*Data Entities, Attributes, and Keys (continued)

    Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

  • Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition* The Database ApproachTraditional approach to data managementSeparate data files are created and stored for each application programDatabase approach to data managementPool of related data is shared by multiple application programs

    Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

  • Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition* The Database Approach (continued)

    Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

  • Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition* The Database Approach (continued)

    Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

  • Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition*Data Modeling and Database CharacteristicsWhen building a database, an organization must consider: Content: What data should be collected and at what cost?Access: What data should be provided to which users and when?Logical structure: How should data be arranged so that it makes sense to a given user?Physical organization: Where should data be physically located?

    Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

  • Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition*Data ModelingBuilding a database requires two types of designsLogical designAbstract model of how data should be structured and arranged to meet an organizations information needsPhysical designStarts from the logical database design and fine-tunes it for performance and cost considerations

    Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

  • Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition*Data Modeling (continued)Data modelDiagram of data entities and their relationshipsEnterprise data modeling Starts by investigating the general data and information needs of the organization at the strategic levelEntity-relationship (ER) diagramsData models that use basic graphical symbols to show the organization of and relationships between data

    Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

  • Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition*The Relational Database ModelRelational modelDescribes data using a standard tabular formatEach row of a table represents a data entityColumns of the table represent attributesDomainAllowable values for data attributes

    Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

  • Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition*The Relational Database Model (continued)

    Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

  • Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition*The Relational Database Model (continued)Manipulating DataSelectingEliminates rows according to certain criteriaProjectingEliminates columns in a tableJoiningCombines two or more tablesLinkingManipulating two or more tables that share at least one common data attribute

    Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

  • Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition*The Relational Database Model (continued)

    Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

  • Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition*The Relational Database Model (continued)Data cleanupProcess of looking for and fixing inconsistencies to ensure that data is accurate and completeEliminates redundancies and anomalies

    Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

  • Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition*Database Management Systems (DBMSs)Creating and implementing the right database system Ensures that the database will support both business activities and goalsCapabilities and types of database systems vary considerably

    Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

  • Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition*Overview of Database TypesFlat fileSimple database program whose records have no relationship to one anotherSingle userOnly one person can use the database at a timeExamples: Access, FileMaker, and InfoPathMultiple userAllows dozens or hundreds of people to access the same database system at the same timeExamples: Oracle, Sybase, and IBM

    Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

  • Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition*Providing a User ViewSchemaUsed to describe the entire databaseCan be part of the database or a separate schema fileDBMS Can reference a schema to find where to access the requested data in relation to another piece of data

    Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

  • Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition*Creating and Modifying the DatabaseData definition language (DDL)Collection of instructions and commands used to define and describe data and relationships in a specific databaseAllows databases creator to describe data and relationships that are to be contained in the schemaData dictionaryDetailed description of all the data used in the database

    Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

  • Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition*Creating and Modifying the Database (continued)

    Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

  • Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition*Storing and Retrieving DataWhen an application program needs dataIt requests the data through the DBMSConcurrency control Can be used to avoid this potential problem

    Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

  • Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition*Storing and Retrieving Data (continued)

    Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

  • Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition*Manipulating Data and Generating ReportsData manipulation language (DML)Commands that manipulate the data in a databaseStructured Query Language (SQL)Adopted by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as the standard query language for relational databasesOnce a database has been set up and loaded with data it can produce reports, documents, and other outputs

    Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

  • Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition*Database AdministrationDBA Works with users to